Difference between revisions of "Sustainable Energy Vehicle Competition"

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== Objective ==
= Objective =
The experimental objective is to evaluate different types of energy storage and different sources of renewable energy. Design a sustainable energy vehicle using the power sources and power storage devices provided in the lab to compete in a competition within the section.


== Overview ==
The experimental objective of this lab is to evaluate different sources of renewable energy and use the results of that evaluation to design a sustainable energy vehicle in Fusion 360 following the specifications that are provided.


=== Energy Storage ===
= Overview =


==== Electrolytic Cells ====
While humans have been using renewable energy sources, such as sails to power boats, windmills to pump water, or water-driven wheels to power machinery that mills grains, for millennia, the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal, has prompted greater interest in and greater investment in renewable energy sources, including solar power, wind power, and hydroelectric power. But some renewable energy sources cannot generate power consistently, notably solar power and wind power, so there is equal interest in developing energy storage devices that can operate at grid-scale or hold sufficient energy to power entire communities for an extended time after being charged by a renewable energy source.
A battery is a device that is usually made up of one or more individual cells. In this experiment we will be creating a citrus cell. A battery cell is a cell that creates a voltage across a terminal of two dissimilar metals. This is done through a chemical half reaction. A citrus cell is one that does this using a citrus juice as the electrolytic solution. By using two different types of metals we have two different reaction potentials which directly affect the voltage produced with each cell. By linking multiple cells together in series we produce a battery.


Before learning the concept behind a battery cell, there are two properties that should be understood: electronegativity and ionization energy:
== Types of Renewable Energy ==


* '''Electronegativity''' in an element is a measure of the element's capability to attract another element's electrons. The higher degree of electronegativity an element has the more power it has to pull away electrons from a less electronegative element. There is an obvious trend in the periodic table for this particular property. Electronegativity generally increases from left to right and from bottom to top. As a result the elements around cesium have very low electronegativity and elements around fluorine have the highest.
<b>Renewable energy</b> is a type of energy that can be harnessed from naturally replenished resources. Some examples of this are sunlight, wind, and water. There are many benefits of using renewable energy. They are clean energy sources, and they come from an abundant source that do not become depleted. If these renewable resources can be harnessed efficiently, they can solve the problems with using non-renewable energy sources, such as fossil fuels (NextEra Energy Resources, 2012).


* '''Ionization energy''' is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom to form a cation. A cation is an ion or group of ions having a positive charge in electrolysis. This property also has a trend in the periodic table. It generally increases from left to right and from bottom to top.
=== Solar Power ===


[[Image: lemonlab_1.jpg|frame|center|Figure 1: Periodic Table Overview]]
Sunlight, like any other type of electromagnetic radiation, contains energy. Typically, when sunlight hits an object, the energy that it contains is converted into heat. Certain materials can convert the energy into an electrical current. In this form, it can be used as a power source and it can be stored as energy.


<p>The electronegativity and ionization energy values for the metals used in the
In a crystal structure, the materials used for <b>solar panels</b> contain covalent bonds where electrons are shared by the atoms within the crystal. When the light is absorbed, electrons within the crystal become excited and move to a higher energy level. When this occurs, the electron has more freedom of movement within the crystal. When the electrons move around the crystal structure an electrical current is generated. The reaction that occurs when sunlight hits a solar panel is shown in Figure 1 (Locke, 2008).
lab are provided in the table below:</p>


<table border=1 cellspacing=0 align=center>
[[Image:Lab_renewener_01.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 1: A Silicon Solar Panel Showing the Electron Flow]]
<tr>
<td><b>Metal</b></td>
<td><b>Electronegativity<br>(Pauling Scale)</b></td>
<td><b>Ionization Energy<br>(kJ/mole)</b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Magnesium</td>
<td align=right>1.31</td>
<td align=right>738</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Nickel</td>
<td align=right>1.91</td>
<td align=right>736</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Copper</td>
<td align=right>1.90</td>
<td align=right>745</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Zinc</td>
<td align=right>1.65</td>
<td align=right>904</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Aluminum</td>
<td align=right>1.61</td>
<td align=right>577</td>
</tr>
</table>


The reaction that takes place in the lemon cell is called a redox reaction. This reaction can be simplified into two parts and they are called oxidation and reduction. Oxidation happens when there is an electron loss and reduction is when there is an electron gain. Oxidation and reduction can be shown in a half-reaction, which clearly shows the electron transfer. Take for example the redox reaction between magnesium and oxygen.
Older solar panels use large crystalline structures made from silicon. When sunlight hits the silicon on the solar panel, the photons from the sunlight energize the electrons in the material. These energized electrons create a higher electrical potential in the material that is measured as a voltage between that material and ground.


<math>2Mg(s) + O_2(g) \rightarrow 2MgO_2(s)</math>
The material copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) is also used in the production of solar panels. Panels made from CIGS have a smaller crystalline structure and are less expensive than their silicon counterparts. CIGS panels are relatively flexible and can easily be shaped into flexible films. The use of CIGS to make solar panels is referred to as thin-film solar technology because of its flexible nature. CIGS panels are not as good at converting absorbed light into electrical current compared to silicon. But for mass production purposes, CIGS solar panels are the more cost effective approach to produce solar panels for frequent use (Locke, 2008).


When magnesium reacts with oxygen, magnesium loses electrons making it oxidized:
=== Wind Energy ===


<math>Mg(s) \rightarrow Mg^{2+}(s) + 2e^-</math>
<b>Wind turbines</b> are used to capture the wind’s energy and convert it into electrical energy. The blades on wind turbines are slanted so that as the wind passes over the blades it creates an uneven pressure on each side, causing them to rotate. The spinning blades drive a low speed shaft connected to a gearbox. The gearbox within the wind turbine converts the low speed rotation to a high speed rotation through a high speed shaft. The high speed shaft is connected to a brake and then into an electrical generator where mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy (Layton, 2011).


At the same time, oxygen gains those electrons making oxygen reduced.
A basic electrical generator is made of permanent magnets on each side with a rectangular coil connected to a commutator, which is a rotary electrical switch (Figure 2). The two permanent magnets on each side create a magnetic field. As the rectangular coil spins mechanically, the magnetic field through the area of the coil changes, creating an alternating current through the coil. The commutator switches the polarity of the coil just as the polarity of the alternating current changes, creating a direct current. The current is then output from the wind turbine (Layton, 2011).


<math>O_2(g) + 4e^- \rightarrow 2O^{2-}(g)</math>
[[Image:Lab_renewener_02.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 2: The Internal Structure of an Electrical Generator (Layton, 2011)]]
<!--==== Hydroelectric Power ====
Water is constantly moved around in various states through the water cycle. Water evaporating from Earth’s surface condenses into clouds. The water in clouds over land will eventually precipitate in the form of rain effectively transporting water to a higher elevation and thus potential energy state. The energy is then release in the form of water flowing downstream. This movement provides opportunities to harness a seemingly infinite source of kinetic energy. In order to generate sufficient electricity from the motion of the water, it has to move fast enough and in large enough volumes to spin a turbine. The turbines used for hydroelectric energy operate in an almost identical manner to the turbines for used for wind power. The only differences occur in the physical construction of the turbine itself. In order to increase the volumes and motion of the water dams are created to store reservoirs of water.
 
Gravity causes the water held at the top of the dam to drop through the penstock (regulates water flow). At the end of the penstock is the turbine, which rotates thus creating the mechanical energy used to rotate the magnets in the generator.


==== Hydrogen Fuel Cells ====
[[Image:hydropower1.png|thumb|800px|center|Figure 7: The hydroelectric process of a dam]]-->
A fuel cell is a power storage device which stores chemical energy and converts it into electrical energy. The fuels used can range from hydrogen, methane to even gasoline. For the purpose of this lab we will be using hydrogen as a fuel; therefore we are using hydrogen fuel cells. The main components that make up the fuel cell are an electrolyte, an anode chamber, a cathode chamber, and bipolar plates. The electrolyte acts as a separator that keeps the reactions from interacting with each other, by separating the anode and cathode chambers. When the water molecules are broken down, the hydrogen is stored in the anode chamber and oxygen on the cathode chamber. The bipolar plates collect the current generated by the fuel cell when the reaction takes place. Refer to Figure 3 for the internal structure of a fuel cell. [4]


Generally the gas used by the fuel cell is already separated prior to the use with a fuel cell using various methods such as using an electrolyzer, a device that separates distilled water into hydrogen and oxygen. In some cases fuel cells can be used to initiate this reaction, they are called reversible fuel cells. When supplied with water the reversible fuel cell separates the distilled water into hydrogen and oxygen. The stored hydrogen and oxygen can then be supplied to the fuel cell to generate electrical energy. Hydrogen fuel cells can be used to power various utilities such as computers, cars, power plants and even whole cities. However due to the nature of producing and storing the gas required to generate large amounts of electrical energy fuel cells are generally very large. This becomes a problem when being used in vehicles. 
== Energy Storage ==
[[Image:Lab_renewener_03.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 2: This is the internal structure of a fuel cell [4]]]<br style="clear: both;" />


==== Capacitors ====
<b>Capacitors</b> have many uses in circuits and signal processing. In this lab, a capacitor can be used as the power source for the renewable energy vehicle. Fundamentally, a capacitor is an electrical device that is used to store charge temporarily. Some capacitors can be used in place of a battery, but they operate very differently from a battery. A capacitor is charged by a voltage source logarithmically, as shown in Figure 3.
A capacitor is an electrical device used to store charge temporarily. Some capacitors can be used in place of a battery but they operate very differently from one. A capacitor is charged by a voltage source logarithmically, as shown in Figure 3.
   
   
[[Image:Lab_renewener_06.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 3: Capacitor Charging Curve]]<br style="clear: both;" />
[[Image:Lab_renewener_06.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 3: Capacitor Charging Curve]]


Because of their design, these capacitors are sensitive to the polarity of the voltage applied to them. The capacitors used in this lab must be connected with the proper polarity, or they will fail. Therefore, be sure to check the capacitor used to make sure you have the negative sign on the capacitor connected to the negative applied voltage. Failure to do this will cause the capacitors to fail.
Because of their design, these capacitors are sensitive to the polarity of the voltage applied to them. The capacitors used in this lab must be connected with the proper polarity. In the lab, the capacitor’s negative lead must be connected to the negative applied voltage (Figure 4). Failure to do this will cause the capacitor to fail.
   
   
[[Image:Lab_renewener_07.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 4: Polarized laboratory capacitor]]<br style="clear: both;" />
[[Image:Lab_renewener_07.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 4: Polarized Capacitor]]


The total energy a capacitor holds is given by the equation ''E = CV<sup>2</sup> / 2''. Note that the energy that the capacitor holds is proportional to the '''square''' of the voltage.
The energy a capacitor holds is proportional to the square of the voltage across the capacitor (1).


=== Types of Renewable Energy ===
<center><math>E = \frac{CV^2}{2}\,</math></center>
Renewable energy are types of energy that can be harnessed from naturally replenished resources. Some examples of this includes sunlight, wind, and water. There are many benefits of using renewable energy such as clean energy sources, and they come from an abundant source that doesn’t become depleted. If we are able to efficiently utilize these renewable resources we can solve the problems with using non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels. [1]
<p style="text-align:right">(1)</p>


==== Solar Power ====
In (1), E is the energy, C is the capacitance, and V is the voltage. The capacitance value of a capacitor is measured in farads (F) and energy is measured in joules (J).
Sunlight, like any other type of electromagnetic radiation, contains energy. Typically when the sunlight hits an object, the energy that it contains is converted into heat. However, certain materials can convert the energy into electrical current, and in this form we can harness it and store it as energy.  


In a crystal structure, the materials used for solar panels contain covalent bonds where electrons are shared by the atoms within the crystal. When the light is absorbed, electrons within the crystal become excited and move to a higher energy level. When this occurs the electron has more freedom of motion within the crystal. When the electrons move around the crystal structure an electrical current is generated, this in turn gives us electrical energy. The reaction that occurs when sunlight shines onto a solar panel is shown in Figure 5. [2]
== Electrical Components ==
The design of a circuit determines its behavior. In this lab, one circuit design will increase the speed output of a motor and the other will increase the torque output of a motor. In electrical engineering, different electrical components are represented by different symbols. Figures 5A, 5B, and 5C show the symbols for a <b>battery</b>, <b>capacitor</b>, and <b>DC source</b>, respectively. They are all forms of energy storage devices.


[[Image:Lab_renewener_05.png|center|thumb|79px|Figure 5A: Symbol for Battery]]
[[Image:Capacitor Symbol.png|center|thumb|79px|Figure 5B: Symbol for Capacitor]]
[[Image:DC Source.png|center|center|thumb|79px|Figure 5C: Symbol for DC Source]]
<!--<b>Diodes</b> and <b>light emitting diodes (LEDs)</b> were introduced in the Prototyping with Microcontrollers, Sensors, and Materials lab. A diode has polarity and will only allow current to pass from its positive lead to its negative lead. A light emitting diode (LED) not only passes current, but also lights up when it is passing current. LEDs have a forward voltage and a reverse voltage. In the forward direction, the forward voltage and resistance are low and determined by the material used in the LED. The reverse voltage has a much higher resistance and a higher reverse voltage that prevents the flow of electrical current. The characteristic of the diode is to have low resistance to electrical flow in the forward direction and high resistance in the reverse direction. This provides the ability to control the flow of electricity in one direction only.


Older solar panels consist of large crystalline structures made from silicon. When sunlight hits the silicon on the solar panel, the photons from the sunlight energize the electrons in the material. These energized electrons create a higher electrical potential in the material, which is measured as a voltage between that material and ground. The silicon solar panels convert a large amount of the sunlight into electrical energy but are not cost due to high manufacturing costs.[2]
There is a threshold voltage in the forward direction for the LED to emit light. Below the threshold voltage, there is no light. At and above the threshold voltage, the LED emits light with intensity roughly linear with the forward voltage magnitude. The symbol for an LED is shown in Figure 6.


The material ''Copper indium gallium (di)selenide'' (CIGS) is also used in the production of solar panels. Panels made from CIGS have a smaller crystalline structure and are less expensive than their silicon counterparts. CIGS panels are relatively flexible and can easily be shaped into flexible films. The use of CIGS to make solar panels is referred to as thin-film solar technology because of its flexible nature. CIGS panels are in fact not as good at converting absorbed light into electrical current compared to silicon. However, for mass production purposes, CIGS solar panels are the more cost effective approach to produce solar panels for frequent use. [2]
[[Image:Symbol_LED.png|thumb|center|150px|Figure 6: Symbol for LED]]-->
Different arrangements of electrical components allow engineers to design different devices. Components, such as resistors, inductors, and capacitors, can be arranged in two different ways. In a <b>series circuit</b>, the element's components are connected end to end. The current in a series circuit remains the same in all the electrical elements. In a series circuit, as shown in Figure 6, the sum of the voltages across each element is equal to the voltage of the power source (2).


<center><math>V_{out} = V_A + V_B + V_C</math></center>
<p style="text-align:right">(2)</p>


[[Image:Lab_renewener_01.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 5: A solar panel made using silicon is shown to have a change of electron flow as photons are being absorbed by the plate.]]<br style="clear: both;" />
In (2), V<sub>out</sub> is the voltage output and V<sub>A</sub>, V<sub>B</sub>, and V<sub>C</sub> represent the voltage of the individual components.


==== Wind Energy ====
[[Image:Lab_renewener_08.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 6: A Series Circuit]]


Wind turbines are used to capture the wind’s energy and convert it into electrical energy. The structure of a wind turbine has a heavy influence on its functionality. The blades on wind turbines are slanted so that as the wind passes over the blades it creates an uneven pressure on each side causing them to spin. The spinning blades in turn drive a low speed shaft connected to a gearbox. The gearbox within the wind turbine converts the low speed rotation to a high speed rotation through a high speed shaft. The high speed shaft is connected to a brake and then into an electrical generator where mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. [3]
In a <b>parallel circuit</b>, as shown in Figure 7, the element's components are connected at opposing ends. The current that is supplied by the voltage source equals the current that flows though elements D and E. The voltage across the elements that are parallel is the same (3).


A very basic electrical generator is made up of permanent magnets on each side with a rectangular coil connected to a commutator, a rotary electrical switch. The two permanent magnets on each side create a magnetic field. As the rectangular coil spins mechanically, the magnetic field through the area of the coil changes creating an alternating current through the coil itself. The commutator switches the polarity of the coil just as the polarity of the alternating current changes creating a direct current. The current is then output from the wind turbine. [3]
<center><math>V_{out} = V_D = V_E</math></center>
<p style="text-align:right">(3)</p>


In (3), V<sub>out</sub> is the voltage output and V<sub>D</sub> and V<sub>E</sub> represent the voltage of the individual components.
   
   
[[Image:Lab_renewener_02.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 6: The internal structure of an electrical generator [3]]]<br style="clear: both;" />
[[Image:Lab_renewener_09.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 7: A Parallel Circuit]]
 
A <b>digital multimeter</b> will be used in this lab to read the current and voltage across components in circuits. Multimeters usually have two leads that directly touch two nodes in a circuit or the leads of an electrical component. Please read the [[media: DMMGuidelines.docx | Digital Multimeter Guidelines]] before performing this lab in order to understand how to properly operate a digital multimeter. Digital multimeters are indicated by different symbols in electrical circuits, depending on the value being measured by the multimeter. When measuring voltage, the multimeter is referred to as a voltmeter (Figure 8A). When measuring current, the multimeter is referred to as an ammeter (Figure 8B).
 
[[Image:Voltmeter Symbol.png|thumb|150px|center|Figure 8A: Symbol for Voltmeter]]
[[Image:Ammeter Symbol.png|thumb|150px|center|Figure 8B: Symbol for Ammeter]]
 
Depending on whether voltage or current is being measured in a circuit, the multimeter will be arranged in the circuit in a different manner. To measure the voltage across an electrical component, the multimeter must be placed in the circuit in parallel (Figure 9A). To measure the current across an electrical component, the multimeter must be placed in the circuit in series (Figure 9B).
 
[[Image:Multimeter in Parallel.png|thumb|362px|center|Figure 9A: Multimeter in Parallel]]
[[Image:Multimeter in Series.png|thumb|362px|center|Figure 9B: Multimeter in Series]]
 
After measuring the voltage and current across a component in a circuit, the electrical <b>power</b> output of that component can be calculated using the Power Law (4).
 
<center><math>P = IV</math></center>
<p style="text-align:right">(4)</p>
 
In (4), P is the power in Watts, I is the current in Amperes, and V is the voltage in Volts.
 
<!--The <b>motor</b> provided in the lab is a 9V motor that will operate with voltages lower than 9V with reduced torque and speed (Figure 10). A motor with no load draws 9 mA, and a stalled motor draws well over 350 mA. Increasing the voltage provided to the motor increases the speed. Increasing the current increases the torque.
 
[[Image:LEGO 9V Motor.jpg|thumb|200px|center|Figure 10: LEGO 9V Motor]]-->
== VEX Robotics ==
Vex Robotics is used globally for students to understand the fundamentals of robotics. It is commonly used to model the capabilities of vehicles.
In this lab, you will be using VEX robotics parts in order to construct the chassis in Fusion 360.
The <b>motor</b> used in the lab is a 9V VEX motor.
 
[[Image:Vex_image.png|thumb|200px|center|Figure 10: 9V VEX Motor]]
 
== Fusion 360 ==
A brief digest of the tools and functions of the Fusion 360 Design workspace is presented below. This digest is specific to this virtual lab and many of the CAD functions can be performed differently in other situations.


===  Navigation Tools  ===
* The <b>Orbit</b> tool allows rotating the current view around a pivot point in three dimensions. This can also be done by grabbing the orthographic cube in the top right corner and rotating it. To make the view normal to a face, edge, or corner, click the respective part of the orthographic cube.
* The <b>Zoom tool</b> allows for the magnifying or minimizing of an object.
* If the component is lost in the view, either use the <b>Pan tool</b> to move the current view in 2D until it is found, or click Zoom Window > Fit. These tools will help navigate the workspace while putting together the boom.


==== Hydroelectric Power ====
[[Image:Bc1.png|300px|thumb|center|Figure 11: Orbit, Pan and Zoom Tools]]
Water is constantly moved around in various states through the water cycle. Water evaporating from Earth’s surface condenses into clouds. The water in clouds over land will eventually precipitate in the form of rain effectively transporting water to a higher elevation and thus potential energy state. The energy is then release in the form of water flowing downstream. This movement provides opportunities to harness a seemingly infinite source of kinetic energy. In order to generate sufficient electricity from the motion of the water, it has to move fast enough and in large enough volumes to spin a turbine. The turbines used for hydroelectric energy operate in an almost identical manner to the turbines for used for wind power. The only differences occur in the physical construction of the turbine itself. In order to increase the volumes and motion of the water dams are created to store reservoirs of water.


Gravity causes the water held at the top of the dam to drop through the penstock (regulates water flow). At the end of the penstock is the turbine, which rotates thus creating the mechanical energy used to rotate the magnets in the generator.  
===  Moving Components  ===
* Once a component is placed into the workspace, Fusion 360 will remember the component in that space. To move it again, use the <b>Move/Copy tool</b> after right clicking the component (Figure 12).


[[Image:Bc2.png|400px|thumb|center|Figure 12: Move/Copy Tool]]


[[Image:hydropower1.png|thumb|800px|center|Figure 7: The hydroelectric process of a dam]]


=== Electrical Components ===
* Once the component is moved to the desired position, use the <b>Capture Position tool</b> to set the component in that place (Position > Capture Position). If it is ever moved unintentionally, use the <b>Revert button</b> (Position > Revert) to move the component back to its original position. These tools will only show up when the model is an unsaved position (Figure 13).
In electrical engineering different electrical components are represented by different symbols. Below in Figures 7a and 7b are examples of symbols for a cell and a battery.
<div><div style="float: left; display: inline;">[[Image:Lab_renewener_04.png|center|thumb|500px|Figure 7a: Cell]]<br style="clear: both;" /></div><div style="float: left; display: inline;">


[[Image:Lab_renewener_05.png|center|thumb|500px|Figure 7b: Battery]]<br style="clear: both;" /></div></div><br style="clear: both;" />
[[Image:Bc3.png|450px|thumb|center|Figure 13: Capture Position Tool]]


A '''diode''' is a device that allows current to pass through it in only one direction. This means that it has polarity, and will only allow current to pass from its positive side to its negative side. A '''Light Emitting Diode (LED)''' not only passes current, but also lights up when it's passing current. LEDs have a forward voltage and a reverse voltage. In the forward direction, the forward voltage and resistance are low and determined by the material used in the LED. The reverse voltage has a much higher resistance and a higher reverse voltage that prevents the flow of electrical current. The characteristic of the diode is to have low resistance to electrical flow in the forward direction and high residence in the reverse direction provides the ability to control the flow of electricity in one direction only.
===  Deleting Components  ===
* Deleting parts requires an extra step. Clicking on an object automatically selects the face of a body and not the whole body, and Fusion 360 will not be able to delete a face. To get past this, in the toolbar go to Select > Selection Priority > Select Body Priority (Figure 14).


There is a threshold voltage in the forward direction for the LED to emit light. Below the threshold voltage, there is no light. At and above the threshold voltage the LED emits light with intensity roughly linear with forward voltage. The symbol for the LED is shown in Figure 8.
[[Image:Bc4.png|700px|thumb|center|Figure 14: Select Tool]]


[[Image:Symbol_LED.png|frame|center|Figure 8: LED Symbol<sup>3</sup>]]
* A part can only be deleted by selecting its body. Make sure to use the same steps to change the selection priority back to face, or to edge/component if necessary. Another way to delete is to right click on the component in the Browser tab and click Delete.


Different arrangements of electrical components allow engineers to design different devices. Components like resistors, inductors, and capacitors can be arranged in two different ways. In a series circuit, the element's conductors are connected end to end. The current in a series circuit remains the same in all the electrical elements. In a series circuit, as shown in Figure 9, the sum of the voltages across each element is equal to the voltage of the power source (''V<sub>out</sub> = V<sub>A</sub> + V<sub>B</sub> + V<sub>C</sub>'').  
===  Aligning Components  ===
* The <b>Align tool</b> is found under the Modify tab of the toolbar. This is useful when attempting to place cylinders in a position defined by an opening. Simply select the outside face of the cylinder and the inside face of the hollow cylinder to align the two parts. Make sure to check the <b>Capture Position Box</b> or use the <b>Capture Position tool</b> to save this setup of the model (Figure 15).
[[Image:Lab_renewener_08.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 9: A series circuit]]<br style="clear: both;" />


In a parallel circuit, as shown in Figure 10, the element's conductors are connected at opposing ends. The current that is supplied by the voltage source equals the current that flows though elements '''''D''''' and '''''E'''''. The voltage across the elements that are parallel is the same (V<sub>out</sub> = V<sub>D</sub> = V<sub>E</sub>).
[[Image:Bc51.png|700px|thumb|center|Figure 15: Align Tool]]
[[Image:Lab_renewener_09.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 10: A parallel circuit]]<br style="clear: both;" />


The motor provided is a 9V motor that will operate with voltages lower than 9V with reduced torque and speed. A motor with no load draws 9mA; a stalled motor draws well over 350mA. By increasing the voltage provided to the motor you can increase the motor speed. By increasing current you increase the torque.
Here's a video tutorial on how to  use the align tool:
[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1APz_kDAN3bZ4s7QPy4O5GOm3jZdfOs4G/view?usp=sharing Align tool tutorial]
Download the video is it does not play in the browser.


== Design Considerations ==
= Design Considerations =
* Which source yields the most voltage per unit cost?
* Which source yields the most voltage per unit cost?
* Which type of energy storage is most effective?
* Which circuit configuration will provide the most desirable voltage across the load? Parallel or series?
* Which circuit configuration will provide the most desirable voltage across the load? Parallel or series?
* Which aspects of the competition formula are most advantageous?


== Materials and Equipment ==
= Materials and Equipment =
=== Materials with Price List ===
<!--=== Materials with Price List ===
* 2oz Lemon Juice (with cup): $0.50
{| class="wikitable"
* 1.5" Mg Strip: $1.50
|+ Table 1: Materials and Costs
* Cu, Zn, Al, Ni Strip: $0.75/strip
!Material!!Unit!!Cost Per Unit
* Horizon wind-turbine: $5.00 each
|-
* Water turbine: $5.00 each
|style="text-align: center;"|Horizon Wind-Turbine||style="text-align: center;"|1||style="text-align: center;"|$7.50
* Solar battery panels: $10.00 each
|-
* Horizon hydrogen fuel cell: $12.00 each
|style="text-align: center;"|Solar Panel||style="text-align: center;"|1||style="text-align: center;"|$10.00
* 1 Farad 2.5V capacitor: $3.00 each
|-
* Alligator cable sets: $0.50/pair
|style="text-align: center;"|1 F 5.5V Capacitor||style="text-align: center;"|1||style="text-align: center;"|$3.00
* Standard Lego car chassis plus Lego parts kit: $0, limit one per group
|-
* Lego to alligator cable clip connector: $0.10 each
|style="text-align: center;"|Alligator Clip Set||style="text-align: center;"|1 pair||style="text-align: center;"|$0.50
* Tape: $0.10/feet
|-
|style="text-align: center;"|LEGO Kit (Limit One Per Design)||style="text-align: center;"|1||style="text-align: center;"|$0.00
|-
|style="text-align: center;"|LEGO to Alligator Clip Connector||style="text-align: center;"|1||style="text-align: center;"|$0.10
|-
|style="text-align: center;"|Tape||style="text-align: center;"|1 foot||style="text-align: center;"|$0.10
|-
|}-->
 
* Horizon wind-turbine
* Sunforce 50013 1 W solar battery charger
* Adjustable table fan
* Heat lamp
* 3V power supply
* Digital multimeter
* Music voltmeter
* 9V DC motor
* 1 F 5.5V capacitor
* 3 alligator clip sets
* Virtual VEX Kit
 
= Procedure =


=== Equipment Used ===
The power storage device and power sources will be tested individually. The results of the tests will be used in determining the best power source in designing the sustainable energy vehicle.
* Horizon Wind-Turbine
* Sunforce 50013 1-Watt Solar Battery Charger
* Adjustable Table fan
* Heat Lamp
* DMM (Digital Multi-meter)
* Music Voltmeter
* 2V DC Motor
* Horizon Hydrogen Fuel cell
* 1 Farad 2.5V Capacitor
* Lemon Juice
* Metal Strips
** Magnesium, Nickel, Zinc, Copper, Aluminum
* 3 Alligator cable sets
* Standard Lego Car Chassis plus Lego parts kit
* Lego to Alligator Cable Clip Connector
* Scissors
* Tape
<span style="color: red;">'''Warning'''</span> '''Magnesium is a highly reactive metal. Use carefully and only as described in these instructions.'''


== Procedure ==
== Note for Hybrid Session ==
=== Part 1: Testing the Power Storage Devices ===
In-person students are expected to complete the physical circuits for Part 1 and Part 2, indicated by the label <b>(In-Person)</b>. Remote students are expected to complete a similar circuit diagram via tinkerCAD for Part 1 and Part 2 of the procedure. In-depth instructions on the tinkerCAD circuits are provided under the physical procedures with the label <b>(Remote)</b>. Any procedure labeled <b>(Hybrid)</b> is expected to be completed through a joint collaboration between remote and in-person students.


==== Electrolytic/Citrus Cell ====
In order to create new circuits or copy an existing template of a circuit in tinkerCAD, follow the steps below:
In this part of the experiment every team will receive a different set of metals to test and compare the different voltage outputs of the combinations.
# Obtain two different samples of metals '''from your TA''' as well as one cup of lemon juice. TA's will select the different metal combinations for each team.
# Before inserting metal strips into the cup of lemon juice, clean the metal strips using the emery paper provided by the TA. Scrub the emery paper in one direction, then scrub perpendicular to the first direction. Once cleaned, insert the metals into the cup of lemon juice. '''Note:''' Magnesium reacts very fast, so if this is one of the metals given be sure to insert both strips at the same time and take readings immediately.
# Keep the metals on opposite sides of the cup to prevent them from touching.
# Connect one end of the first alligator cable set to one of the metal pieces and one end of the second alligator cable set to the other metal. These will be the electrodes of the cell.
# Connect the other ends of the alligator cable sets to the positive and negative ends of the digital multi-meter and measure the voltage. Record the value in units of volts. '''Note:''' If it is negative then the polarity is switched; switch the alligator clips to connect to the opposite sides of the DMM.
# The metal strip attached to the positive end of the digital multi-meter (red wire) is the anode (+) and the other (black wire) is the cathode (-).
# Record the values and present them to your TA. The TA will generate a spreadsheet with the voltage produced by each metal combination for all teams.
# Remove the electrodes to stop the chemical reaction. Wipe them clean with a paper towel. Discard the paper towel in the trash can.
<span style="color: red;">'''Warning'''</span> '''Magnesium left in lemon juice dissolves; remove from the cup immediately after this part of the experiment.'''


==== Hydrogen Fuel Cell ====
* Go to tinkercad.com and sign in with an Autodesk account.
# Place the 2x4cm (small) length pieces of rubber tube into the bottom right pin on the hydrogen fuel cell (on both sides) and insert a cap (<span style="color: red;">'''red'''</span> for oxygen and '''black''' for hydrogen) into the other end of the tube.
* To start a new circuit, on the left side of the home screen select Circuit > Create new circuit.
# Insert the two longer tubes into the top left pin of the hydrogen fuel cell.
* If a template link is provided in the procedure:
#: [[Image:Lab_renewener_13.png|thumb|400px|left|Figure 11: Hydrogen side of fuel cell]]<br style="clear: both;" />
** Open the tinkercad link for the part of the lab you want to work on. The links are provided in the procedure below.
# Take the two cylindrical beakers and place them on top of the stand provided locking it in place, then fill the two beakers with distilled water until the water level reaches zero.
** Select the Copy & Tinker option. This will copy the template to the workspace so it can be edited.
#: [[Image:Lab_renewener_14.png|thumb|400px|left|Figure 12: Beakers filled with 30ml of distilled water]]<br style="clear: both;" />
# Place the two inner containers into the cylindrical beakers (make sure the side openings on the inner container is not blocked by the inner ring on the beakers), the distilled water from the beaker will fill out the inner container at this point.
#: [[Image:Lab_renewener_15.png|thumb|500px|left|Figure 13: The cylindrical beaker and inner container]]<br style="clear: both;" />
# Connect the two longer tubes to the inner container on each of the beakers corresponding to oxygen and hydrogen on the fuel cell. (Make sure there is no air in the inner containers.)
#: [[Image:Lab_renewener_17.png|thumb|400px|left|Figure 14: Oxygen tube inserted into the tip of the inner container]]<br style="clear: both;" />
# On the oxygen side of the fuel cell connect the syringe to the uncapped tube (first remove the <span style="color: red;">'''red'''</span> cap on the smaller tube). Fill the reversible fuel cell with distilled water using the syringe (by pulling '''out''' the air, not pushing in water) until all the air is removed from the long tube. Afterwards place the red cap on the smaller tube
#: [[Image:Lab_renewener_16.png|thumb|500px|left|Figure 15: Oxygen side of fuel cell with a syringe inserted to fill oxygen tubes side with distilled water]]<br style="clear: both;" />
#: '''IMPORTANT''': Make sure the connections of the wires to the fuel cell match (<span style="color: red;">'''red'''</span> to <span style="color: red;">'''red'''</span>, '''black''' to '''black''') otherwise it may lead to failure of this part of the experiment and damage to the fuel cell. If this problem occurs the students will have to take full responsibility for replacing the parts.
#: '''Hint: Place the longer tube above the oxygen beaker to hold the water coming out of the longer tube.'''
# Connect the 3V power supply to the positive and negative inputs on the fuel cell and turn on the power supply.
# Charge until H<sub>2</sub> inner container is filled with gas. The O<sub>2</sub> should be half because we're converting H<sub>2</sub>O and the stoichiometric coefficients demand that balance.
# Discharge the charged fuel cell by connecting it to the music voltmeter provided.
# Measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter provided. The connections for measuring voltage and current across the music voltmeter are shown in Figures X & Y:
#: [[Image:Lab_renewener_19.png|thumb|500px|left|Figure X: Voltage measurement circuit]]<br style="clear: both;" />
#: [[Image:Lab_renewener_20.png|thumb|500px|left|Figure Y: Current measurement circuit.]]<br style="clear: both;" />
#: '''<span style="color: red">Note: </span> Be careful to not wire the multimeter in the voltage-reading configuration when reading current; accidentally doing this will cause the multimeter to blow its fuse and become inoperable.'''
# Calculate and record the power produced by the hydrogen fuel cell.
<!--* #: [[Image:Lab_renewener_18.png|thumb|500px|left|Figure 16: Mini Propeller and 3V power supply with extended cables]]<br style="clear: both;" /> -->
#: [[Image:HIR_1.png|thumb|500px|left|Figure 16: Music Voltmeter]]<br style="clear: both;" />


==== Charging a Capacitor ====
== 1. Testing the Power Storage Device ==
# Connect an alligator clip to each of the cables coming out of the 3V power supply. (<span style="color: red;">'''red'''</span> is positive and '''black''' is negative)
# Connect to the one of unconnected alligator clips the ammeter (multimeter setting measuring current)
# Connect the rest of the unconnected cables (one from ammeter and one alligator clip) connect to pins of the capacitor with correspond polarity. (refer to Figure 10)
# Charge until the current is zero.
# Discharge the charged capacitor by connecting it to the music voltmeter provided.
[[Image:Lab_renewener_11.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 17: This is circuitry for charging a capacitor.]]<br style="clear: both;" />


=== Part 2: Testing the Power Sources ===
=== Charging a Capacitor (In-Person) ===
Each team will analyze '''one''' type of renewable power source, determined by the TA. Both voltage and current must be measured and recorded, and power must be calculated.


==== Wind turbine ====
# The circuit in Figure 16 will be created to charge a capacitor. Connect an alligator clip to each of the cables coming out of the 3V power supply. Red is the positive terminal and black is the negative terminal.
# Connect the wind turbine to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips provided. Measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter provided. The connections for measuring voltage and current across the music voltmeter are shown in Figures 9 & 10.
# Connect one of the unconnected alligator clips to one of the leads of the ammeter (the multimeter set to measuring current).
# Adjust the position of the turbine to find the maximum voltage and current that can be generated.
# Connect the rest of the unconnected cables (one from the ammeter and one alligator clip) in series to the leads of the capacitor with the polarity indicated in Figure 16.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the turbine and give information to TA.
# Charge the capacitor until the current in the circuit is zero.
# Discharge the charged capacitor by connecting it to the music voltmeter. The capacitor is discharging when the music voltmeter audibly plays a song.


==== Solar Panel ====
[[Image:Lab 10 Figure 8.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 16: Circuit to Charge a Capacitor]]
# Connect the solar panel to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips provided. Place the solar panel near the heat lamp and measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter provided.
# Adjust the position of the solar panel to find the maximum voltage and current that can be generated.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give information to the TA.
#: '''<span style="color: red">Caution!</span> The heat lamps and solar panels may become extremely hot when used for a long duration of time. Do not touch them immediately after use and turn them off when not in use.'''


==== Water Turbine ====
=== Charging a Capacitor (Remote) ===
# Connect the leads of the hydroelectric turbine to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips provided.
# Ask a TA to open the spigot on the bucket at the top of the workbench.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give information to the TA.


# Open a new tinkerCAD circuit. Refer to the starting the new tinkerCAD circuit procedure given above.
# The circuit to charge a capacitor will be made in this part of the lab. The circuit is shown in Figure 17.
# Click and drag a 9V battery, 1 Farad capacitor, and multimeter on the interface as shown in Figure 17
# Wire the negative end of the 9V battery to the negative end of the multimeter. To wire these two components, simply click on the negative terminal of the battery, and click once again on the negative terminal of the multimeter. Red is the positive terminal and black is the negative terminal.
# Similarly, wire the positive end of the multimeter to terminal 1 on the capacitor. Wire terminal 2 on the capacitor to the positive terminal of the battery.
# To charge the capacitor click Start Simulation. Charge the capacitor until the current in the circuit is zero ampere (0A).
# Click on Stop Simulation once the multimeter reading is zero ampere (0A).
# Take a screenshot of your circuit.
[[Image:Unnamed.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 17: tinkerCAD Circuit to Charge a Capacitor]]
== 2. Testing the Power Sources ==
<!--One type of renewable power source will be assigned and analyzed per team, as determined by the TA. Both voltage and current must be measured and recorded, and power must be calculated.
=== Wind Turbine ===
# Connect the wind turbine to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips. Measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter. The connections for measuring voltage and current across the music voltmeter are shown in Figures 9A and 9B.
# Adjust the position of the turbine blades against the wind to find the highest voltage and current that can be generated.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the turbine and give the information to a TA.
=== Solar Panel ===
# Connect the solar panel to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips. Place the solar panel near the heat lamp and measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter.
# Adjust the position of the solar panel to find the highest voltage and current that can be generated.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give the information to a TA.
'''<span style="color: red">Caution!</span> The heat lamps and solar panels may become extremely hot when used for a long duration of time. Do not touch them immediately after use and turn them off when not in use.'''
==== Hydroelectric Turbine ====
==== Hydroelectric Turbine ====
# Connect the red wire of the water wheel to the positive (red) end of the multimeter and the black wire to the negative (black) end of the multimeter. Set the multimeter to measure voltage.
# Connect the red wire of the water wheel to the positive (red) end of the multimeter and the black wire to the negative (black) end of the multimeter. Set the multimeter to measure voltage.
# Notify the TA once the connections have been set up. The TA will then take you to the AUV room's sink to measure the voltage and (electrical) current produced by the water coming from the sink. '''<span style="color: red">Be very careful to keep water off of the multimeters.</span>'''
# Notify the TA once the connections have been set up. The TA will then take you to the AUV room's sink to measure the voltage and (electrical) current produced by the water coming from the sink. '''<span style="color: red">Be very careful to keep water off of the multimeters.</span>'''
# Calculate and record the power generated by the water wheel and give information to the TA.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the water wheel and give information to the TA.-->
 
<!--=== Competition Rules ===
 
The competition rules must be followed at all times during the competition. Violation of any of these rules will result in the disqualification of the design.
 
* The renewable energy vehicle must carry its power storage device (e.g. capacitor)
* The capacitor can only be charged using the power sources provided
* Each design will only be allowed one trial
* Do not touch the leads of the charged capacitor - this will discharge the capacitor
* Do not connect the power storage device until immediately before the trial is run
* The trial will end after five minutes or when the car stops moving, whichever occurs first
* The highest competition ratio (CR) wins (5)
<center><math>CR = \frac{Distance\left[\text{ft}\right]}{1\left[\text{s}\right] + Time\left[\text{s}\right]} \times \frac{100}{Cost\left[$\right]} + Distance\left[\text{ft}\right]\,</math></center>
<p style="text-align:right">(5)</p>
 
In (5), distance is distance traveled in feet, time is the travel time in seconds, and cost is the cost of the design in dollars.-->
 
<!--=== 3. Sustainable Energy Vehicle Competition ===
 
# Assess the materials and consider the data from 1. Testing the Power Storage Device and 2. Testing the Power Sources. Choose materials for the vehicle design, keeping in mind the competition ratio. Make preliminary sketches during this process.
# The design must hold the power storage device on top of it during the trials. Modify the design to fit the power storage device, keeping in mind where the wires will be when the trial is run. Prepare a cost list for the renewable energy vehicle based on the design and materials chosen. Have a TA sign the sketches and the cost list, indicating the total cost of the initial design.
# A TA will provide the materials needed for the design. If the design is modified during the construction, note the changes and describe the reasons for them. If the modifications required more materials to be used, update the cost list and have a TA approve it.
# Construct the vehicle based on the sketched design.
# Run the trial.
# Give the total cost of the design to a TA. The TA will provide the competition ratio obtained.
 
'''Before entering the competition, test the motor and cable. Make sure the motors turn in the desired direction of travel.'''-->
 
Four sources of energy will be analyzed in this part of the procedure: a wind turbine, a solar panel, a lemon battery, and a potato battery.<b> The in-person students are responsible for building a circuit for and analyzing either the wind turbine or the solar panel, as determined by the TA. The remote students are responsible for building a circuit for and analyzing both the lemon and potato battery via tinkerCAD.</b>  All voltage and current must be measured and recorded, and power must be calculated.
 
=== Wind Turbine (In-Person) ===
 
# Connect the wind turbine to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips. Measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter. The connections for measuring voltage and current across the music voltmeter are shown in Figures 9A and 9B.
# Adjust the position of the turbine blades against the wind to find the highest voltage and current that can be generated.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the turbine and give the information to a TA.


=== Solar Panel (In-Person) ===


=== Part 3: Renewable Car Competition ===
# Connect the solar panel to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips. Place the solar panel near the heat lamp and measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter.
# Assess your materials and consider the data established from Part 1 and Part 2. Choose materials for your car design, keeping in mind the Competition Ratio. Make sure you make preliminary sketches during this process. (You may choose different combinations of power sources and power storage devices for your design)
# Adjust the position of the solar panel to find the highest voltage and current that can be generated.
# Your design must be able to hold the power storage devices on top of it during the trials (you may modify your design to fit the power storage devices as you deem fit). Prepare a price-list for your renewable energy powered vehicle based on the setups and materials you have chosen. Have your TA '''sign''' the sketches and the price-list.  
# Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give the information to a TA.
# Your TA will provide the materials needed for your design. If you decide to modify your design during the construction of your car, note the changes and describe the reasons for them. If the modifications required more materials to be used, make sure you update your price list and your TA approves it. (Note: You may modify your design between trials)
'''Before entering the competition, test if both your motor and cable are working.'''


==== Competition ====
=== Lemon Battery (Remote) ===
The renewable energy vehicle must be able to carry the power storage device you choose to use on it (e.g. fuel cell, capacitor). You may only power your capacitor and fuel cell using the power sources provided, violations to these rules will result in a failing grade for the lab report for this lab.


When requested by the TA, the student will position the renewable energy car and complete the necessary connections before the trial begins.
# Click and drag two lemon batteries and a multimeter on the interface. If the lemon battery is not visible in the components menu on the right, click on Components > All.
# Create a circuit using two lemon batteries. Wire the multimeter to be in series with the circuit.
# Click on Start Simulation and record the final current produced by the circuit in series.
# Create a circuit using two lemon batteries. Wire a multimeter in parallel to the circuit. In order to create the circuit, diodes are required to connect more than two wires.
# Click on Start Simulation and record the final voltage produced by the circuit in parallel.
# Make sure to wire the positive terminal of the lemon battery with the positive terminal of the multimeter and the negative terminal of the lemon battery to the negative terminal of the multimeter.
# Take a screenshot of both the circuits with the voltage and current reading.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give the information to a TA.
# If you finished both the lemon battery circuit and the potato battery circuit before the in-person students finished their circuit, move on to Part 3 of the procedure in order to familiarize yourself with the given VEX parts and the align tool. Once the in-person students finished their circuit, everyone in the group should collaborate to complete the Data Analysis portion of Part 2.


The competition will be won by the team that has the highest competition ratio:
=== Potato Battery (Remote) ===
 
# Click and drag two potato batteries and a multimeter on the interface. If the potato battery is not visible in the components menu on the right, click on Components > All.
# Create a circuit using two potato batteries. Wire the multimeter to be in series with the circuit.
# Click on Start Simulation and record the final current produced by the circuit in series.
# Create a circuit using two potato batteries. Wire a multimeter in parallel to the circuit. In order to create the circuit, diodes are required in order to connect more than two wires.
# Click on Start Simulation and record the final voltage produced by the circuit in parallel.
# Make sure to wire the positive terminal of the potato battery with the positive terminal of the multimeter and the negative terminal of the potato battery to the negative terminal of the multimeter.
# Take a screenshot of both the circuits with the voltage and current reading.
# Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give the information to a TA.
 
<b>If you finished both the lemon battery circuit and the potato battery circuit before the in-person students finished their circuit, move on to Part 3 of the procedure in order to familiarize yourself with the given VEX parts and the align tool. Once the in-person students finished their circuit, everyone in the group should collaborate to complete the Data Analysis portion of Part 2.</b>
 
=== Data Analysis (Hybrid) ===
 
# Share and explain the circuits built and the data collected for the wind turbine, solar panel, lemon battery, and potato battery to your group.
# Based on the calculated power of each renewable energy source, determine the best power source in order to theoretically power a sustainable energy vehicle.
# With the chosen power source, create a circuit that would charge the capacitor. Use a multimeter to confirm that the capacitor is charged. The circuit should be made in person if the chosen power source is a wind turbine or a solar panel and should be made in tinkerCAD if the chosen power source is a lemon or a potato battery.
   
   
<math>CR = \frac{distance\left[\text{ft}\right]}{1\left[\text{s}\right] + time\left[\text{s}\right]} \times \frac{100}{Cost\left[$\right]} + distance\left[\text{ft}\right]\,</math>
<b>Caution! The heat lamps and solar panels may become extremely hot when used for a long duration of time. Do not touch them immediately after use and turn them off when not in use.</b>
 
== 3. Sustainable Energy Vehicle (Hybrid) ==
 
In this part, a simple vehicle will be designed and assembled in Fusion 360. This vehicle will utilize one motor that is powered by the capacitors in the previous steps.
 
=== Importing VEX Robotics Parts ===
 
# The VEX parts for the vehicle can be found in a ZIP folder here. The latest version of Fusion 360 must be downloaded for the parts to appear properly.
# Unzip the parts to a space on the computer.
# In Fusion 360, open the Data Panel (icon with 9 boxes at the top left) and click Upload (Figure 18). Select the unzipped part files to upload them to Fusion 360’s cloud memory. Fusion 360 can only import files uploaded to its cloud.
 
[[Image:Data_panel.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 18: Data Panel]]
 
=== Design the Vehicle ===
 
Review the parts that are available. Consider the following restraints while designing your car:
* A maximum of two motors are allowed.
* The design must be able to hold the capacitors on top of it.
* Modify the design to have a location to store the power storage device.
* The motor must be connected to a minimum of two wheels.
 
<b>Do not worry about inserting nuts and bolts. Primarily focus on the general shape of the design with shafts, wheels, and the structural components.</b>
 
=== Assemble the Parts ===
 
# Ensure that the Design workspace is open in Fusion 360. This is indicated at the top left.
# The VEX part files can be inserted into a new Fusion 360 file by simply dragging and dropping them from the Data Panel into the space. Alternatively, right click the components and select Insert into Current Design. Save the blank file before assembling the vehicle by going to File > Save as.
# Import the other parts based on the design that was sketched. Connect all the parts using the Align tool to complete the model. Use the tips from the Fusion 360 section in the Overview and watch the short tutorial on the Align Tool for instructions to properly connect the components of the vehicle in Fusion 360.
# Take screenshots of the designed vehicle in Fusion 360 and send it to the lab TA.
 
=== Extra Credit ===
To receive extra credit, create two wires using the sweep tool that connects the capacitor to a motor. Use Google, online Fusion 360 forums, and Youtube tutorials to complete this. <b>To receive extra credit, the entire vehicle design with the sweeped wires must be completed before the end of lab and also must be included in the team presentation.</b>


The TA will record the test data after five minutes or when the car stops moving, whichever occurs first. The TA will then calculate the competition ratio. The tabulation for the whole class will be provided.
= Assignment =
== Individual Lab Report ==
<!--<b>Note:</b> You will be writing a team lab report rather than an individual one. See the [[Team Authoring Strategies]] page in the <i>Technical Communication</i> of this online manual for guidance of how to do this.-->


== Assignment ==
This lab report is <b>optional</b> and you will receive <b>extra credit</b> for submitting it. {{Labs:Lab Report}}
=== Individual Lab Report ===
Follow the lab report guidelines laid out in the page called [[Specifications for Writing Your Lab Reports]] in the Technical Communication section of this manual. As you write, the following discussion points should be addressed in the appropriate section of your lab report:
* Describe the rules of the competition in your introduction. What consequences did the rules have for your design decisions? Use the appropriate equations in your answer.
* Describe an electrolytic cell in your introduction. What consequences did the electrode voltages have for your design decisions?
* Explain how solar panels and wind turbines work.
* Explain the concepts of the hydrogen fuel cell and capacitors.
* Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the solar panel and wind-turbine..
* Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen fuel cell compared to other storage devices (e.g. capacitors or batteries)
* Describe your renewable energy vehicle design and explain the choices you made in your design.
* Discuss minimal design. Did you use all the materials you purchased? Describe the importance of minimal design and explain how you employed it in your design. (how did you minimize your cost)
* Describe how your design succeeded or failed. What choices could you have made to improve your final standing in the competition?
* Discuss how you would improve the competition ratio, how was your design compared to the other group’s designs.
* Describe the power source chosen for the design.
* Include spreadsheet with every team's results. Describe the results and talk about other designs in the class.


{{Lab notes}}
* Define renewable energy
* Explain how solar panels and wind turbines work
* Explain the concept of the capacitor
* Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of all four energy sources
* Describe the renewable energy vehicle design and explain the choices made in the design
* Discuss the power sources and their power output. How did the voltage measurements of the power sources impact the design?
* Specify the power source chosen for the design
* Discuss your design. Why did you choose the chassis or wheels? How did you factor in the constraints of the vehicle?
* Discuss how the design compared to the other designs
* Include screenshots of the lemon and potato battery circuits and pictures of the wind turbine or solar panel circuit
* Discuss what part of the lab you completed for your group and why it was important to the overall experiment.


=== Team PowerPoint Presentation ===
Follow the presentation guidelines laid out in the [[EG1003 Lab Presentation Format]] section of this manual. When you are preparing your presentation, consider the following points:
* Since one term in the competition ratio is cost, present the cost of your vehicle. Use the page [[How to Show Cost Data in Presentations]] for instructions on how to do this.
* How would you improve your renewable energy powered car?


== References ==
{{Labs:Lab Notes}}
[1] NextEra Energy Resources, LLC., . "Benefits of Renewable Energy." NextEra Energy Resources. NextEra Energy Resources, 2012. Web. 24 Jul 2012. <http://www.nexteraenergyresources.com/content/environment/benefits.shtml>.


[2] Locke, S.. "How does solar power work." Scientific american. Scientific American, 2008. Web. 24 Jul 2012. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-does-solar-power-work>.
== Team PowerPoint Presentation ==
 
[3] Layton, J.. "How Wind Power Works." How stuff works. Discovery, 2011. Web. 24 Jul 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/wind-power.htm>.
{{Labs:Team Presentation}}
 
* Discuss why you chose your renewable energy source
* Discuss the power sources and their power output. How did the voltage measurements of the power sources impact the design?
* Discuss your design. Why did you choose the chassis or wheels? How did you factor in the constraints of the vehicle?
* How would the renewable energy vehicle be improved?
 
= References =
 
Layton, J.. "How Wind Power Works." How stuff works. Discovery, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/wind-power.htm>.
 
Locke, S.. "How Does Solar Power Work." Scientific American. Scientific American, 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-does-solar-power-work>.
 
NextEra Energy Resources, LLC. "Benefits of Renewable Energy." NextEra Energy Resources. NextEra Energy Resources, 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://www.nexteraenergyresources.com/content/environment/benefits.shtml>.
 
Perlman, Howard.. "Hydroelectric Power: How it Works." U.S. Geological Survey, 2016. Retrieved 4 Jan 2018. <https://water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html>.  


[4] Reg Tyler, . "Types of Fuel Cells." Energy efficeny and renewable energy. U.S. Department of Energy, 2011. Web. 24 Jul 2012. <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html>.
Reg Tyler, . "Types of Fuel Cells." Energy efficiency and renewable energy. U.S. Department of Energy, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html>.


[5] Perlman, Howard.. "Hydroelectric power: How it works." U.S. Geological Survey, 2016. Web 4 Jan 2018. <https://water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html>.
{{Laboratory Experiments}}

Latest revision as of 15:28, 3 October 2020

Objective

The experimental objective of this lab is to evaluate different sources of renewable energy and use the results of that evaluation to design a sustainable energy vehicle in Fusion 360 following the specifications that are provided.

Overview

While humans have been using renewable energy sources, such as sails to power boats, windmills to pump water, or water-driven wheels to power machinery that mills grains, for millennia, the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal, has prompted greater interest in and greater investment in renewable energy sources, including solar power, wind power, and hydroelectric power. But some renewable energy sources cannot generate power consistently, notably solar power and wind power, so there is equal interest in developing energy storage devices that can operate at grid-scale or hold sufficient energy to power entire communities for an extended time after being charged by a renewable energy source.

Types of Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is a type of energy that can be harnessed from naturally replenished resources. Some examples of this are sunlight, wind, and water. There are many benefits of using renewable energy. They are clean energy sources, and they come from an abundant source that do not become depleted. If these renewable resources can be harnessed efficiently, they can solve the problems with using non-renewable energy sources, such as fossil fuels (NextEra Energy Resources, 2012).

Solar Power

Sunlight, like any other type of electromagnetic radiation, contains energy. Typically, when sunlight hits an object, the energy that it contains is converted into heat. Certain materials can convert the energy into an electrical current. In this form, it can be used as a power source and it can be stored as energy.

In a crystal structure, the materials used for solar panels contain covalent bonds where electrons are shared by the atoms within the crystal. When the light is absorbed, electrons within the crystal become excited and move to a higher energy level. When this occurs, the electron has more freedom of movement within the crystal. When the electrons move around the crystal structure an electrical current is generated. The reaction that occurs when sunlight hits a solar panel is shown in Figure 1 (Locke, 2008).

Figure 1: A Silicon Solar Panel Showing the Electron Flow

Older solar panels use large crystalline structures made from silicon. When sunlight hits the silicon on the solar panel, the photons from the sunlight energize the electrons in the material. These energized electrons create a higher electrical potential in the material that is measured as a voltage between that material and ground.

The material copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) is also used in the production of solar panels. Panels made from CIGS have a smaller crystalline structure and are less expensive than their silicon counterparts. CIGS panels are relatively flexible and can easily be shaped into flexible films. The use of CIGS to make solar panels is referred to as thin-film solar technology because of its flexible nature. CIGS panels are not as good at converting absorbed light into electrical current compared to silicon. But for mass production purposes, CIGS solar panels are the more cost effective approach to produce solar panels for frequent use (Locke, 2008).

Wind Energy

Wind turbines are used to capture the wind’s energy and convert it into electrical energy. The blades on wind turbines are slanted so that as the wind passes over the blades it creates an uneven pressure on each side, causing them to rotate. The spinning blades drive a low speed shaft connected to a gearbox. The gearbox within the wind turbine converts the low speed rotation to a high speed rotation through a high speed shaft. The high speed shaft is connected to a brake and then into an electrical generator where mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy (Layton, 2011).

A basic electrical generator is made of permanent magnets on each side with a rectangular coil connected to a commutator, which is a rotary electrical switch (Figure 2). The two permanent magnets on each side create a magnetic field. As the rectangular coil spins mechanically, the magnetic field through the area of the coil changes, creating an alternating current through the coil. The commutator switches the polarity of the coil just as the polarity of the alternating current changes, creating a direct current. The current is then output from the wind turbine (Layton, 2011).

Figure 2: The Internal Structure of an Electrical Generator (Layton, 2011)

Energy Storage

Capacitors have many uses in circuits and signal processing. In this lab, a capacitor can be used as the power source for the renewable energy vehicle. Fundamentally, a capacitor is an electrical device that is used to store charge temporarily. Some capacitors can be used in place of a battery, but they operate very differently from a battery. A capacitor is charged by a voltage source logarithmically, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Capacitor Charging Curve

Because of their design, these capacitors are sensitive to the polarity of the voltage applied to them. The capacitors used in this lab must be connected with the proper polarity. In the lab, the capacitor’s negative lead must be connected to the negative applied voltage (Figure 4). Failure to do this will cause the capacitor to fail.

Figure 4: Polarized Capacitor

The energy a capacitor holds is proportional to the square of the voltage across the capacitor (1).

(1)

In (1), E is the energy, C is the capacitance, and V is the voltage. The capacitance value of a capacitor is measured in farads (F) and energy is measured in joules (J).

Electrical Components

The design of a circuit determines its behavior. In this lab, one circuit design will increase the speed output of a motor and the other will increase the torque output of a motor. In electrical engineering, different electrical components are represented by different symbols. Figures 5A, 5B, and 5C show the symbols for a battery, capacitor, and DC source, respectively. They are all forms of energy storage devices.

Figure 5A: Symbol for Battery
Figure 5B: Symbol for Capacitor
Figure 5C: Symbol for DC Source

Different arrangements of electrical components allow engineers to design different devices. Components, such as resistors, inductors, and capacitors, can be arranged in two different ways. In a series circuit, the element's components are connected end to end. The current in a series circuit remains the same in all the electrical elements. In a series circuit, as shown in Figure 6, the sum of the voltages across each element is equal to the voltage of the power source (2).

(2)

In (2), Vout is the voltage output and VA, VB, and VC represent the voltage of the individual components.

Figure 6: A Series Circuit

In a parallel circuit, as shown in Figure 7, the element's components are connected at opposing ends. The current that is supplied by the voltage source equals the current that flows though elements D and E. The voltage across the elements that are parallel is the same (3).

(3)

In (3), Vout is the voltage output and VD and VE represent the voltage of the individual components.

Figure 7: A Parallel Circuit

A digital multimeter will be used in this lab to read the current and voltage across components in circuits. Multimeters usually have two leads that directly touch two nodes in a circuit or the leads of an electrical component. Please read the Digital Multimeter Guidelines before performing this lab in order to understand how to properly operate a digital multimeter. Digital multimeters are indicated by different symbols in electrical circuits, depending on the value being measured by the multimeter. When measuring voltage, the multimeter is referred to as a voltmeter (Figure 8A). When measuring current, the multimeter is referred to as an ammeter (Figure 8B).

Figure 8A: Symbol for Voltmeter
Figure 8B: Symbol for Ammeter

Depending on whether voltage or current is being measured in a circuit, the multimeter will be arranged in the circuit in a different manner. To measure the voltage across an electrical component, the multimeter must be placed in the circuit in parallel (Figure 9A). To measure the current across an electrical component, the multimeter must be placed in the circuit in series (Figure 9B).

Figure 9A: Multimeter in Parallel
Figure 9B: Multimeter in Series

After measuring the voltage and current across a component in a circuit, the electrical power output of that component can be calculated using the Power Law (4).

(4)

In (4), P is the power in Watts, I is the current in Amperes, and V is the voltage in Volts.

VEX Robotics

Vex Robotics is used globally for students to understand the fundamentals of robotics. It is commonly used to model the capabilities of vehicles. In this lab, you will be using VEX robotics parts in order to construct the chassis in Fusion 360. The motor used in the lab is a 9V VEX motor.

Figure 10: 9V VEX Motor

Fusion 360

A brief digest of the tools and functions of the Fusion 360 Design workspace is presented below. This digest is specific to this virtual lab and many of the CAD functions can be performed differently in other situations.

Navigation Tools

  • The Orbit tool allows rotating the current view around a pivot point in three dimensions. This can also be done by grabbing the orthographic cube in the top right corner and rotating it. To make the view normal to a face, edge, or corner, click the respective part of the orthographic cube.
  • The Zoom tool allows for the magnifying or minimizing of an object.
  • If the component is lost in the view, either use the Pan tool to move the current view in 2D until it is found, or click Zoom Window > Fit. These tools will help navigate the workspace while putting together the boom.
Figure 11: Orbit, Pan and Zoom Tools

Moving Components

  • Once a component is placed into the workspace, Fusion 360 will remember the component in that space. To move it again, use the Move/Copy tool after right clicking the component (Figure 12).
Figure 12: Move/Copy Tool


  • Once the component is moved to the desired position, use the Capture Position tool to set the component in that place (Position > Capture Position). If it is ever moved unintentionally, use the Revert button (Position > Revert) to move the component back to its original position. These tools will only show up when the model is an unsaved position (Figure 13).
Figure 13: Capture Position Tool

Deleting Components

  • Deleting parts requires an extra step. Clicking on an object automatically selects the face of a body and not the whole body, and Fusion 360 will not be able to delete a face. To get past this, in the toolbar go to Select > Selection Priority > Select Body Priority (Figure 14).
Figure 14: Select Tool
  • A part can only be deleted by selecting its body. Make sure to use the same steps to change the selection priority back to face, or to edge/component if necessary. Another way to delete is to right click on the component in the Browser tab and click Delete.

Aligning Components

  • The Align tool is found under the Modify tab of the toolbar. This is useful when attempting to place cylinders in a position defined by an opening. Simply select the outside face of the cylinder and the inside face of the hollow cylinder to align the two parts. Make sure to check the Capture Position Box or use the Capture Position tool to save this setup of the model (Figure 15).
Figure 15: Align Tool

Here's a video tutorial on how to use the align tool: Align tool tutorial Download the video is it does not play in the browser.

Design Considerations

  • Which source yields the most voltage per unit cost?
  • Which circuit configuration will provide the most desirable voltage across the load? Parallel or series?

Materials and Equipment

  • Horizon wind-turbine
  • Sunforce 50013 1 W solar battery charger
  • Adjustable table fan
  • Heat lamp
  • 3V power supply
  • Digital multimeter
  • Music voltmeter
  • 9V DC motor
  • 1 F 5.5V capacitor
  • 3 alligator clip sets
  • Virtual VEX Kit

Procedure

The power storage device and power sources will be tested individually. The results of the tests will be used in determining the best power source in designing the sustainable energy vehicle.

Note for Hybrid Session

In-person students are expected to complete the physical circuits for Part 1 and Part 2, indicated by the label (In-Person). Remote students are expected to complete a similar circuit diagram via tinkerCAD for Part 1 and Part 2 of the procedure. In-depth instructions on the tinkerCAD circuits are provided under the physical procedures with the label (Remote). Any procedure labeled (Hybrid) is expected to be completed through a joint collaboration between remote and in-person students.

In order to create new circuits or copy an existing template of a circuit in tinkerCAD, follow the steps below:

  • Go to tinkercad.com and sign in with an Autodesk account.
  • To start a new circuit, on the left side of the home screen select Circuit > Create new circuit.
  • If a template link is provided in the procedure:
    • Open the tinkercad link for the part of the lab you want to work on. The links are provided in the procedure below.
    • Select the Copy & Tinker option. This will copy the template to the workspace so it can be edited.

1. Testing the Power Storage Device

Charging a Capacitor (In-Person)

  1. The circuit in Figure 16 will be created to charge a capacitor. Connect an alligator clip to each of the cables coming out of the 3V power supply. Red is the positive terminal and black is the negative terminal.
  2. Connect one of the unconnected alligator clips to one of the leads of the ammeter (the multimeter set to measuring current).
  3. Connect the rest of the unconnected cables (one from the ammeter and one alligator clip) in series to the leads of the capacitor with the polarity indicated in Figure 16.
  4. Charge the capacitor until the current in the circuit is zero.
  5. Discharge the charged capacitor by connecting it to the music voltmeter. The capacitor is discharging when the music voltmeter audibly plays a song.
Figure 16: Circuit to Charge a Capacitor

Charging a Capacitor (Remote)

  1. Open a new tinkerCAD circuit. Refer to the starting the new tinkerCAD circuit procedure given above.
  2. The circuit to charge a capacitor will be made in this part of the lab. The circuit is shown in Figure 17.
  3. Click and drag a 9V battery, 1 Farad capacitor, and multimeter on the interface as shown in Figure 17
  4. Wire the negative end of the 9V battery to the negative end of the multimeter. To wire these two components, simply click on the negative terminal of the battery, and click once again on the negative terminal of the multimeter. Red is the positive terminal and black is the negative terminal.
  5. Similarly, wire the positive end of the multimeter to terminal 1 on the capacitor. Wire terminal 2 on the capacitor to the positive terminal of the battery.
  6. To charge the capacitor click Start Simulation. Charge the capacitor until the current in the circuit is zero ampere (0A).
  7. Click on Stop Simulation once the multimeter reading is zero ampere (0A).
  8. Take a screenshot of your circuit.
Figure 17: tinkerCAD Circuit to Charge a Capacitor

2. Testing the Power Sources

Four sources of energy will be analyzed in this part of the procedure: a wind turbine, a solar panel, a lemon battery, and a potato battery. The in-person students are responsible for building a circuit for and analyzing either the wind turbine or the solar panel, as determined by the TA. The remote students are responsible for building a circuit for and analyzing both the lemon and potato battery via tinkerCAD. All voltage and current must be measured and recorded, and power must be calculated.

Wind Turbine (In-Person)

  1. Connect the wind turbine to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips. Measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter. The connections for measuring voltage and current across the music voltmeter are shown in Figures 9A and 9B.
  2. Adjust the position of the turbine blades against the wind to find the highest voltage and current that can be generated.
  3. Calculate and record the power generated by the turbine and give the information to a TA.

Solar Panel (In-Person)

  1. Connect the solar panel to the music voltmeter using the alligator clips. Place the solar panel near the heat lamp and measure the voltage and current across the music voltmeter using the digital multimeter.
  2. Adjust the position of the solar panel to find the highest voltage and current that can be generated.
  3. Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give the information to a TA.

Lemon Battery (Remote)

  1. Click and drag two lemon batteries and a multimeter on the interface. If the lemon battery is not visible in the components menu on the right, click on Components > All.
  2. Create a circuit using two lemon batteries. Wire the multimeter to be in series with the circuit.
  3. Click on Start Simulation and record the final current produced by the circuit in series.
  4. Create a circuit using two lemon batteries. Wire a multimeter in parallel to the circuit. In order to create the circuit, diodes are required to connect more than two wires.
  5. Click on Start Simulation and record the final voltage produced by the circuit in parallel.
  6. Make sure to wire the positive terminal of the lemon battery with the positive terminal of the multimeter and the negative terminal of the lemon battery to the negative terminal of the multimeter.
  7. Take a screenshot of both the circuits with the voltage and current reading.
  8. Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give the information to a TA.
  9. If you finished both the lemon battery circuit and the potato battery circuit before the in-person students finished their circuit, move on to Part 3 of the procedure in order to familiarize yourself with the given VEX parts and the align tool. Once the in-person students finished their circuit, everyone in the group should collaborate to complete the Data Analysis portion of Part 2.

Potato Battery (Remote)

  1. Click and drag two potato batteries and a multimeter on the interface. If the potato battery is not visible in the components menu on the right, click on Components > All.
  2. Create a circuit using two potato batteries. Wire the multimeter to be in series with the circuit.
  3. Click on Start Simulation and record the final current produced by the circuit in series.
  4. Create a circuit using two potato batteries. Wire a multimeter in parallel to the circuit. In order to create the circuit, diodes are required in order to connect more than two wires.
  5. Click on Start Simulation and record the final voltage produced by the circuit in parallel.
  6. Make sure to wire the positive terminal of the potato battery with the positive terminal of the multimeter and the negative terminal of the potato battery to the negative terminal of the multimeter.
  7. Take a screenshot of both the circuits with the voltage and current reading.
  8. Calculate and record the power generated by the solar panel and give the information to a TA.

If you finished both the lemon battery circuit and the potato battery circuit before the in-person students finished their circuit, move on to Part 3 of the procedure in order to familiarize yourself with the given VEX parts and the align tool. Once the in-person students finished their circuit, everyone in the group should collaborate to complete the Data Analysis portion of Part 2.

Data Analysis (Hybrid)

  1. Share and explain the circuits built and the data collected for the wind turbine, solar panel, lemon battery, and potato battery to your group.
  2. Based on the calculated power of each renewable energy source, determine the best power source in order to theoretically power a sustainable energy vehicle.
  3. With the chosen power source, create a circuit that would charge the capacitor. Use a multimeter to confirm that the capacitor is charged. The circuit should be made in person if the chosen power source is a wind turbine or a solar panel and should be made in tinkerCAD if the chosen power source is a lemon or a potato battery.

Caution! The heat lamps and solar panels may become extremely hot when used for a long duration of time. Do not touch them immediately after use and turn them off when not in use.

3. Sustainable Energy Vehicle (Hybrid)

In this part, a simple vehicle will be designed and assembled in Fusion 360. This vehicle will utilize one motor that is powered by the capacitors in the previous steps.

Importing VEX Robotics Parts

  1. The VEX parts for the vehicle can be found in a ZIP folder here. The latest version of Fusion 360 must be downloaded for the parts to appear properly.
  2. Unzip the parts to a space on the computer.
  3. In Fusion 360, open the Data Panel (icon with 9 boxes at the top left) and click Upload (Figure 18). Select the unzipped part files to upload them to Fusion 360’s cloud memory. Fusion 360 can only import files uploaded to its cloud.
Figure 18: Data Panel

Design the Vehicle

Review the parts that are available. Consider the following restraints while designing your car:

  • A maximum of two motors are allowed.
  • The design must be able to hold the capacitors on top of it.
  • Modify the design to have a location to store the power storage device.
  • The motor must be connected to a minimum of two wheels.

Do not worry about inserting nuts and bolts. Primarily focus on the general shape of the design with shafts, wheels, and the structural components.

Assemble the Parts

  1. Ensure that the Design workspace is open in Fusion 360. This is indicated at the top left.
  2. The VEX part files can be inserted into a new Fusion 360 file by simply dragging and dropping them from the Data Panel into the space. Alternatively, right click the components and select Insert into Current Design. Save the blank file before assembling the vehicle by going to File > Save as.
  3. Import the other parts based on the design that was sketched. Connect all the parts using the Align tool to complete the model. Use the tips from the Fusion 360 section in the Overview and watch the short tutorial on the Align Tool for instructions to properly connect the components of the vehicle in Fusion 360.
  4. Take screenshots of the designed vehicle in Fusion 360 and send it to the lab TA.

Extra Credit

To receive extra credit, create two wires using the sweep tool that connects the capacitor to a motor. Use Google, online Fusion 360 forums, and Youtube tutorials to complete this. To receive extra credit, the entire vehicle design with the sweeped wires must be completed before the end of lab and also must be included in the team presentation.

Assignment

Individual Lab Report

This lab report is optional and you will receive extra credit for submitting it. Follow the lab report guidelines laid out in the EG1003 Writing Style Guide in the Technical Writing section of the manual. The following points should be addressed in the appropriate section of the lab report.

  • Define renewable energy
  • Explain how solar panels and wind turbines work
  • Explain the concept of the capacitor
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of all four energy sources
  • Describe the renewable energy vehicle design and explain the choices made in the design
  • Discuss the power sources and their power output. How did the voltage measurements of the power sources impact the design?
  • Specify the power source chosen for the design
  • Discuss your design. Why did you choose the chassis or wheels? How did you factor in the constraints of the vehicle?
  • Discuss how the design compared to the other designs
  • Include screenshots of the lemon and potato battery circuits and pictures of the wind turbine or solar panel circuit
  • Discuss what part of the lab you completed for your group and why it was important to the overall experiment.


Remember: Lab notes must be taken. Experimental details are easily forgotten unless written down. EG1003 Lab Notes paper can be downloaded and printed from the EG1003 Website. Use the lab notes to write the Procedure section of the lab report. At the end of each lab, a TA will scan the lab notes and upload them to the Lab Documents section of the EG1003 Website. One point of extra credit is awarded if the lab notes are attached at the end of the lab report. Keeping careful notes is an essential component of all scientific practice.

Team PowerPoint Presentation

Follow the presentation guidelines laid out in the EG1003 Lab Presentation Format in the Technical Presentations section of the manual. When preparing the presentation, consider the following points.

  • Discuss why you chose your renewable energy source
  • Discuss the power sources and their power output. How did the voltage measurements of the power sources impact the design?
  • Discuss your design. Why did you choose the chassis or wheels? How did you factor in the constraints of the vehicle?
  • How would the renewable energy vehicle be improved?

References

Layton, J.. "How Wind Power Works." How stuff works. Discovery, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/wind-power.htm>.

Locke, S.. "How Does Solar Power Work." Scientific American. Scientific American, 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-does-solar-power-work>.

NextEra Energy Resources, LLC. "Benefits of Renewable Energy." NextEra Energy Resources. NextEra Energy Resources, 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://www.nexteraenergyresources.com/content/environment/benefits.shtml>.

Perlman, Howard.. "Hydroelectric Power: How it Works." U.S. Geological Survey, 2016. Retrieved 4 Jan 2018. <https://water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html>.

Reg Tyler, . "Types of Fuel Cells." Energy efficiency and renewable energy. U.S. Department of Energy, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012. <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html>.