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{{SLDP: RFP|Mars Rover Robot (MRR)}}
{{SLDP: RFP|Mars Rover Robot (MRR)}}
<!--{{SLDP: Real-life Scenarios (Robots)}}-->
<!--{{SLDP: Outside Materials (VEX)}}-->
= Introduction and Overview =
The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently received strong evidence of volcanic activity on the long-believed volcanically dormant planet, Mars. Radar measurements from the Mars Express Spacecraft have detected the presence of a 20 km wide lake of liquid water located underneath a layer of ice in the Planum Australe region. Modern research about the discovery suggests that the only way to maintain water in the liquid state in the conditions present on Mars is with the presence of a magma chamber located underneath the body of liquid water. In order to calculate the possibility of active volcanic activity on the Red Planet, NASA has issued a request for proposal for a rover capable of traversing the steep slopes of Olympus Mons, the second tallest mountain and largest volcano in the solar system. This rover will dig near the base of the volcano as well as photograph it from its peak. By studying the data obtained, NASA hopes to understand the past volcanic activity of the planet and use that data to theorize the possibility of present-day volcanic activity.
The mission has two parts that must be completed. The first part is to collect a rock sample and bring it back to the start point for analysis. The second part of the mission involves climbing to the peak of a mountain to take a picture of the surrounding environment. To complete the mission, a sensor must be used to increase the accuracy of the rover's movement.
= Specifications =
Design a robot using Fusion 360 as your primary design tool. The robot must meet the following specifications:
*Size & Material Constraints
**The robot must fit within a 15 in x 15 in footprint.
**The design must use the materials provided. A cost estimate of the robot’s components must be created and all revisions to the cost estimate must be recorded and explained.
*Sensor Requirement
**The design must incorporate a sensor of choice. This could be a gyro sensor, ultrasonic sensor, or touch sensor.
*Microcontroller Requirement
**The robot’s movements must be directed by an Arduino program. All revisions to the Arduino program must be recorded and explained.
*Autonomous Navigation
**The robot must be fully autonomous, and therefore cannot be touched by any person during testing. The Arduino program may not be altered or switched during any part of the mission.
<!--Your team must build a model of your design using the materials provided. An Arduino program that will direct the robot's movements must be created. A cost estimate of the robot's components must be provided. All revisions to the original design must be recorded and explained. This includes technical design drawings as well as cost estimates. All revisions to the Arduino program must be recorded and explained.
The MRR must be able to move autonomously over the course, pick up the rock sample, and return to the start point, all while using a sensor. The sensor can be a gyro sensor, ultrasonic sensor, or touch sensor. The robot must traverse to the highest peak of the course. For extra credit, the robot can traverse the secondary ramp and return to the start tile. In completing the extra credit, the robot must descend the primary ramp similar to how it ascended it for Commissioning. <b>The robot cannot jump off the primary ramp directly to the secondary ramp.</b> The robot must fit within a 15 in &times; 15 in footprint. These specifications must be met for final Commissioning.
The robot's Arduino program may not be altered or switched during any part of the mission. Likewise, the robot must be fully autonomous, and therefore cannot be touched by any person during testing.-->
Please refer to the course syllabus for all due dates.
'''<span style="color: red;">Please note that this project reflects real life scenarios; the robot must be able to handle minor imperfections in the course. Any attempt to physically step on the course or have the robot drive off a cliff will result in a point penalty in your final project grade due to safety precautions.</span>'''
== Course Layout ==
The MRR course consists of two primary ramps, labeled Ramps 2 and 3, and one additional ramp, Ramp 1. The robot must traverse the uneven terrain to reach the rock sample, return to the Start tile, and finally traverse Ramps 2 and 3 and come to a complete stop at the peak. For extra credit, the robot can traverse Ramp 1 and/or return to the start position after reaching the highest point on the mountain. In completing the extra credit, the robot must descend the primary ramp similar to how it ascended it for Commissioning.<b> The robot cannot jump off the primary ramp directly to Ramp 1.</b>
<!--<b>Ramp 1</b> is the secondary ramp that can be traversed for extra credit. <b>Ramps 2 and 3</b> comprise the primary ramp that must be traversed for Commissioning.-->
[[Image:MRR_Labeled.png|thumb|650px|frame|center|Figure 1: Labeled View of MRR Navigation Field]]
{{SLDP: Microsoft Project}}
== Drawings ==
All drawings and sketches should be made using the Assembly tool in Fusion 360. Fusion 360 can be downloaded for free from the [https://www.autodesk.com/products/fusion-360/students-teachers-educators Autodesk website] using an NYU email or accessed from any computer in the Modelshop during Open Lab hours.
Using Fusion 360, create four drawings of the robot: front, top, most detailed side, and a drawing of the gear train(s). Sensors, motors, and gears must be included in each drawing. Smaller pieces such as nuts, bolts, axles, etc. may be omitted from the drawings. <!--If the robot does not use any gears, make sure to explicitly state that in your presentations.-->
Each revision of the design must be documented and all changes must be presented during Milestone presentations.
[[Image:MRR Drawing.png|thumb|400px|frame|center|Figure 2: Example Drawing of VEX MRR]]
== Model ==
You must build a scale model (1:1) of your design. The following materials will be provided:
# VEX robotics pieces
# Basic electronics prototyping kit
# Sensors
# Motors
The finished MRR must not exceed a footprint of 15 in × 15 in. There is no height limitation. Any additional components that the MRR is equipped with must also fit within the footprint. Additional materials can be supplied by your TA.
{{SLDP: Cost Estimate (VEX)}}
== CATME ==
When working on engineering team projects, peer evaluations and self-evaluations are critical for assessing how effective your contributions are to the team. In our course, your recitation professor will use evaluations at each Milestone using a software called the Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness (CATME). More information can be found on the [[Teamwork Expectations]] page.
== Engineering Notebook ==
While working on your project, you are expected to keep a record of all work done, as well as future plans and goals. In order to complete a Benchmark assessment, show your Engineering Notebook to the Open Lab TA completing your assessment. For Milestone 1, Milestone 2, Milestone 3, and Final Submission you must have it approved by your Recitation Professor and be prepared to make it available to an Open Lab TA in a Word Document (DOC or DOCX) format. A guide to writing the notebook, as well as a basic overview of its expectations and frequency at which you should log in your notebook, can be found on the [[Keeping an Engineering Notebook]] page.
== Extra Credit ==
* Returning to the starting position after reaching the highest peak of the mountain. The robot must be able to descend the primary ramp similar to how it ascended the ramp
* Picking up the rock sample with a claw or other mechanism
* Completing Benchmark A, Benchmark B, or Submission early, or
* Completing your respective SLDP's 3D printing extra credit task as described in the [[3D Printing and Logo Guide]]
Refer to the [[EG1004 Grading Policy]] for exact point values. Creativity and innovation are always rewarded. Original designs will receive extra credit.
{{SLDP: Milestones and Benchmarks}}
{{SLDP: Milestone 1 (Robots)}}
{{SLDP: Benchmark A}}
* Robot reaches the rock sample (the robot does not have to pick it up)
* Preliminary Design Investigation
* Submit an .STL and a .gcode file of the team logo or extra credit print through the 3D Printing Submission portal on the EG website
** <b>The [[3D Printing and Logo Guide]] contains information on the 3D printing requirements and guidelines.</b>
** The protolab schedule is available on the [[3D Printing and Logo Guide]]
* Updated Engineering Notebook
== Milestone 2 ==
'''<span style="color: red;">See [[Media:Eg_milestones.pptx|How To Give a Milestone Presentation]] for the format of a Milestone presentation.</span>'''
Milestone 2 will be a project progress update. You must explain all changes and developments made thus far, particularly in regards to Benchmark A. Include whether or not you were able to complete your Benchmark A requirements, and if not, explain why. Also, highlight any changes you plan on making to your design or project, in general. Your Milestone 2 presentation must include:
* Project description
* Design approach
* Design changes since Milestone 1
* Mission statement
* Technical design description:
** CAD drawings: top, front, most detailed side, isometric, gear train
***If the robot does not use any gears, make sure to explicitly state that in your presentation
** Flowchart of Code
** Circuit diagrams
* Cost estimate (previous and current). What changes were made?
* Microsoft Project schedule (previous and current). What changes were made?
** Click [https://nyu.service-now.com/sp?id=kb_article&sysparm_article=KB0018302&sys_kb_id=b996a7281b6210906441c8c11a4bcbce&spa=1 here] to access the guide on how to transfer a file
* Progress update: current state of the project (time, budget, etc.)
<b>Look Ahead: What tasks are planned between now and Milestone 3?</b>
{{SLDP: Benchmark B}}
* Rock sample is carried by the robot
* Robot returns to the start tile
*Implement and use a sensor to aid the robot's navigation
* Have an .STL and a .gcode file of the team logo or extra credit print approved through the 3D Printing Submission portal on the EG website
** <b>The [[3D Printing and Logo Guide]] contains information on the 3D printing requirements and guidelines</b>
** The protolab schedule is available on the [[3D Printing and Logo Guide]]
* Updated Engineering Notebook
== Milestone 3 ==
'''<span style="color: red;">See [[Media:Eg_milestones.pptx|How To Give a Milestone Presentation]] for the format of a Milestone presentation.</span>'''
Milestone 3 will be the last project progress update. You must explain all changes and developments made thus far, particularly in regards to Benchmark B. Include whether or not you were able to complete your Benchmark B requirements, and if not, explain why. Also, highlight any changes you plan on making to your design or project, in general. Your Milestone 3 presentation must include:
* Project description
* Design approach
* Design changes since Milestone 2
* Mission statement
* Technical design description:
** CAD drawings: top, front, most detailed side, isometric, gear train
** Flowchart of Code
** Circuit and Schematic diagrams
* Cost estimate (previous and current). What changes were made?
* Microsoft Project schedule (previous and current). What changes were made?
** Click [https://nyu.service-now.com/sp?id=kb_article&sysparm_article=KB0018302&sys_kb_id=b996a7281b6210906441c8c11a4bcbce&spa=1 here] to access the guide on how to transfer a file
* Progress update: current state of the project (time, budget, etc.)
<b>Look Ahead: What tasks are planned between now and the completion of the project?</b>
{{SLDP: Commissioning}}
* Complete tasks for Benchmarks A and B
* Robot reaches the highest point of the mountain
** The robot must come to a complete stop at the peak
* Robot meets all specifications
* Have an .STL file of the team logo or extra credit print printed through the 3D Printing Submission portal on the EG website
** <b>The [[3D Printing and Logo Guide]] contains information on the 3D printing requirements and guidelines</b>
** The protolab schedule is available on the [[3D Printing and Logo Guide]]
* All 3D prints must be approved by a Protolab TA
* Updated Engineering Notebook
'''The robot must complete the required tasks in a single run in order to obtain full credit for commissioning.'''
= Final Design Report =
The Final Design Report (FDR) provides a comprehensive overview of your project process and developments from initial brainstorm to finished proof of concept. All project expectations and outcomes must be clearly detailed in the document. This report will also provide you with documentation experience useful for completing your Senior Design final report and other projects.
The Final Design Report must include the following documentation:
* CAD drawings
* Wiring Diagrams
* Commented code
* Project schedule
* Cost estimate
Use this [[Media:MRR_Final_Design_Report.docx|Final Design Report]] template with the following outline:
* Introduction
**  Purpose of Project
**  Background
* Requirements
** Physical Components
** Software Components
* Procedures
** Physical Construction
** Software Setup
** Software Troubleshooting
* Milestone and Final Product Requirements
** Benchmark A Requirements
** Benchmark B Requirements
** Final Submission Requirements
** Human Resources and Training (e.g. TA expertise utilized, etc.)
* Results
** Benchmark A Results
** Benchmark B Results
** Difficulties Experienced
* Conclusion
** Results of Project
** Future Improvements
The FDR is due at the time of submission.
{{SLDP: Final Presentation}}
* Problem statement
* Solution overview
* Company description and qualifications
* CAD Drawings
* Flowchart of Code
* Circuit and Schematic  Diagrams
* Cost estimate
* Microsoft Project schedule
* Video demonstration
* Why should your company be awarded this contract?
{{SLDP: Submission}}
** Final presentation
** Final Arduino program
** Final circuit diagrams
** Initial sketch
** All the drawings of your design (initial through final)
** Video
** Final Microsoft Project schedule
** Final cost estimate
** Resume(s) (no fictitious resumes will be accepted)
** Final notebook/project journal
** Final Design Report
You may resubmit at any time before the deadline. Please note that submission times are based on the most recent submission.
{{SLDP: Early Acceptance}}
{{SLDP: Late Delivery}}
= Frequently Asked Questions =
<b>Q: Can we step on the course as it is difficult to retrieve a robot from the middle of the course due to its size?</b>
A: No. If needed, you can ask a TA to assist you.
<b>Q: Can we bump the course if the robot gets stuck?</b>
A: No. You can't bump Mars, so bumping the course is not an option.
<b>Q: Can we use rubber bands on the wheels for more traction?</b>
A: Yes. This is highly encouraged, especially when dealing with slopes.
<b>Q: All the VEX parts are really big. Is there a size constraint?</b>
A: There is a soft size limitation of a 15 in &times; 15 in footprint. If you slightly exceed this constraint, it is okay, but you may encounter difficulties in navigating the robot through the course.
<b>Q: Can our robot jump from one hill to another?</b>
A: <b>No.</b> This will cause damage to both the robot and course and is also unsafe. If your robot does this, your trial will be invalidated and you may receive point penalties to your final project grade.
<b>Q: Can we laser cut or 3D print a robot part or course modification?</b>
A: You may create a 3D printed or laser cut robot modification; however, due to the size of our MRR course we do not allow course modifications.
<b>Q: How should I get started with building my robot? </b>
A: For help with building, refer to the [[VEX How-To Manual]].
{{Semester-Long Design Project}}
<!--{{SLDP: RFP|Mars Rover Robot (MRR)}}


{{SLDP: Real-life Scenarios (Robots)}}
{{SLDP: Real-life Scenarios (Robots)}}
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The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has received increased funding and have been able to reinstate the Constellation program. To help accelerate the process of development, NASA has issued an RFP (request for proposal) for a rover that will be used in the first of the Constellation missions. This rover will provide data about the landing site and begin preparations of the surrounding area to aid the manned missions arriving 26 months later. The robot should be able to get an accurate salinity reading of any water source, collect soil samples, travel across uneven terrain, and return to the landing site.
The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has received increased funding and have been able to reinstate the Constellation program. To help accelerate the process of development, NASA has issued an RFP (request for proposal) for a rover that will be used in the first of the Constellation missions. This rover will provide data about the landing site and begin preparations of the surrounding area to aid the manned missions arriving 26 months later. The robot should be able to get an accurate salinity reading of any water source, collect soil samples, travel across uneven terrain, and return to the landing site.


The mission has two parts that must be completed. The first part uses a salinity sensor to measure the salt content of one water source and a soil collection module to collect a soil sample, both taken by an autonomous robot (see Course Specifications for more details). The second part of this mission involves analyzing a water source and a soil sample. The water must be tested for salt content. There are two soil tests that the robot can choose from: a pH test and a compounds separation test. Once the tests are done, a conclusion must be reached about whether life can exist in the water sources on Mars, and (depending on the soil test) whether plants can potentially grow in the soil and/or if there is enough Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 to produce an adequate amount of rocket fuel.
The mission has two parts that must be completed. The first part uses a salinity sensor to measure the salt content of one water source and a soil collection module to collect a soil sample, both taken by an autonomous robot (see Course Specifications for more details). The second part of this mission involves analyzing a water source and a soil sample. The water must be tested for salt content. There are two soil tests that the robot can choose from: a pH test and a compounds separation test. Once the tests are done, a conclusion must be reached about whether life can exist in the water sources on Mars, and (depending on the soil test) whether plants can potentially grow in the soil and/or if there is enough Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> to produce an adequate amount of rocket fuel.


= Course Specifications =
= Course Specifications =
Design a robot using Lego Digital Designer as your primary design tool. A model of your design must be built using the materials provided. A Mindstorms program that will direct the robot's movements must be created. A cost estimate of the robot's components must be provided. All revisions to the original design must be recorded and explained. This includes technical design drawings and cost estimates. All revisions to the Mindstorms program must be recorded and explained.
Design a robot using Lego Digital Designer as your primary design tool. A model of your design must be built using the materials provided. A Mindstorms program that will direct the robot's movements must be created. A cost estimate of the robot's components must be provided. All revisions to the original design must be recorded and explained. This includes technical design drawings and cost estimates. All revisions to the Mindstorms program must be recorded and explained.


The Mars Rover Robot (MRR) must be able to move autonomously over the surface of Mars and collect salinity readings from a water source and a soil reading from a soil sample. Salinity readings will be taken using a salinity sensor while soil readings will be taken using a soil collection module. The robot must return to start to pick up the next module/sensor; if the robot can hold both the sensor and module while traversing the course, there is no need to go back to start between readings. The NXT adapter must be fixed to the robot at all times. The robot must finish in the start area, which is 11” by 11”. There is no height restriction. The part of the robot containing the Vernier sensor and collection modules must also fit within the size specifications.  
The Mars Rover Robot (MRR) must be able to move autonomously over the surface of Mars and collect salinity readings from a water source and a soil reading from a soil sample. Salinity readings will be taken using a salinity sensor while soil readings will be taken using a soil collection module. The robot must return to start to pick up the next module/sensor; if the robot can hold both the sensor and module while traversing the course, there is no need to go back to start between readings. The NXT adapter must be fixed to the robot at all times. The robot must finish in the start area, which is 25 cm by 25 cm. There is no height restriction. The part of the robot containing the Vernier sensor and collection modules must also fit within the size specifications.  


Projectile (catapult, slingshot) designs are not allowed.
Projectile (catapult, slingshot) designs are not allowed.
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The first part of the mission requires the robot to:
The first part of the mission requires the robot to:
* Collect one water reading using the Vernier salinity sensor
* Collect one water reading using the Vernier salinity sensor
** Salinity sensor must be dipped into the water sample by the robot
* Collect one soil sample from a dig site using a collection module
* Collect one soil sample from a dig site using a collection module
* Return to the landing site between readings unless the robot can hold both a module and the sensor
** The robot must carry the collection module '''from the Start tile to the dig site'''
** Soil collection modules can be placed by hand onto the soil sample once the robot comes within 2 cm of the sample
** Collection modules are color coded; refer to the layout to determine which module to use
* Return to the landing site between readings unless the robot can hold both a module and the salinity sensor
* Return to the landing site after all readings are taken
* Return to the landing site after all readings are taken
[[Image:Soil_collection_modules.JPG|thumb|200px|center|Figure 1: Soil Collection Modules]]


== Extra Credit ==
== Extra Credit ==
Extra Credit will be awarded if:
Extra Credit will be awarded if:
*A second different type of soil sample is taken
*The robot obtains 3 readings (at least 1 soil and 1 water)
**The corresponding test must also be done to get extra credit
*The robot crosses the canyon
*The robot travels up and down the mountain
*The robot takes a reading from an extra credit tile
*The robot takes a reading from an extra credit tile
*The robot crosses the canyon
**This means the robot completely enters on one side and exits from the opposing side
**All four wheels must cross the canyon


== Layout ==
== Layout ==
[[Image:Mrr_F2016_layout.jpg|thumb|500px|center|Figure 1: Labeled Mars Rover Course Map]]
[[Image:Labelled-mrr-super-correct.jpg|thumb|600px|center|Figure 2: Mars Rover Course Map]]


{{SLDP: Microsoft Project}}
{{SLDP: Microsoft Project}}
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== Model ==
== Model ==
[[Image:MRR7.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Figure 12: Salinity sensor<ref name="vernier">[http://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/sal-bta/ http://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/sal-bta/ http://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/sal-bta/]</ref>.]]
[[Image:MRR7.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Figure 3: Salinity sensor<ref name="vernier">[http://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/sal-bta/ http://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/sal-bta/ http://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/sal-bta/]</ref>.]]
[[Image:MRR8.png|thumb|250px|right|Figure 13: NXT Sensor Adapter<ref name="vernier"></ref>.]]
[[Image:MRR8.png|thumb|250px|right|Figure 4: NXT Sensor Adapter<ref name="vernier"></ref>.]]
The following materials will be provided:  
The following materials will be provided:  
# Mindstorms kit  
# Mindstorms kit  
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# Motors  
# Motors  
# Salinity sensor*
# Salinity sensor*
# NXT Sensor Adapter
# NXT Sensor Adapter (you won't need this until you're working on MRR Part 2)
# Two soil collection modules
# Two soil collection modules


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= Data Specifications =
= Data Specifications =
== Main Tasks ==
== Overview ==
'''Download the [[Media:MARS ROVER ROBOT_DATA SPECIFICATIONS SHEET.pdf|Part 2 Template]] and complete all applicable questions before submitting the final folder.''' 
 
The second part of the mission is to:
The second part of the mission is to:
* Analyze a water sample’s salinity and specific gravity to determine if life can exist in the waters of Mars
* Analyze 3 water samples' salinities and specific gravities to determine if life can exist in the waters of Mars
* Analyze a soil sample by either:
* Analyze a soil sample depending on which dig site(s) the robot traveled to:
** Testing the pH to determine if plants/vegetables can grow, and if possible, state 3 different potential plants/vegetables that could be planted
** pH Test: Test the pH to determine if plants/vegetables can grow, and if possible, state 3 different potential plants/vegetables that could be planted
** Separating the sample into <math>Fe_2O_3</math> and <math>Fe_3O_4</math> to determine if enough rocket fuel can be made
** Fuel Test: Analyze a sample of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and a sample of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> to determine how much rocket fuel can be made


== Background Information ==
== Background Information ==
For the first part of this project, a robot must collect readings of one water sample and at least one soil sample from the various water and soil samples throughout the course.
=== Salinity ===
=== Salinity ===
Salinity is defined as the amount of salt dissolved in a solution. This can be seen in bodies of water throughout the world. Most of the oceans have salinity between 34 and 36 parts per thousand (ppt) while the Mediterranean Sea has a salinity of 38 ppt. One of the more salty bodies of water in the world is the Dead Sea which has a salinity of 342 ppt, which is 9.6 times higher than that of oceans.
Salinity is defined as the amount of salt dissolved in a solution. This can be seen in bodies of water throughout the world. Most of the oceans have salinity between 34 and 36 parts per thousand (ppt) while the Mediterranean Sea has a salinity of 38 ppt. One of the more salty bodies of water in the world is the Dead Sea which has a salinity of 342 ppt, which is 9.6 times higher than that of oceans.
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Ionic compounds are different from molecular compounds because molecular compounds are held together by bonds and ionic compounds are not. Non-metals have a tendency to gain electrons and have a little tendency to lose them. When two non-metals come together to make a molecular compound, they share electrons. This is because both non-metals want the other's electron(s) and do not want to give up their own; they form a bond to share those electron(s) between them. For ionic compounds, the metals have a tendency to lose electrons and the non-metals have a tendency to gain electrons, which sets up a perfect match. When the two are put near each other, the metal gives the non-metal an electron(s).
Ionic compounds are different from molecular compounds because molecular compounds are held together by bonds and ionic compounds are not. Non-metals have a tendency to gain electrons and have a little tendency to lose them. When two non-metals come together to make a molecular compound, they share electrons. This is because both non-metals want the other's electron(s) and do not want to give up their own; they form a bond to share those electron(s) between them. For ionic compounds, the metals have a tendency to lose electrons and the non-metals have a tendency to gain electrons, which sets up a perfect match. When the two are put near each other, the metal gives the non-metal an electron(s).
   
   
[[Image:MRR9.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 14: Ionic bonds<ref name="vchembook">http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/160Aintermolec.html</ref>.]]
[[Image:MRR9.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 5: Ionic bonds<ref name="vchembook">http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/160Aintermolec.html</ref>.]]


These newer elements are called ions and they can either be positive or negative. The metal ion tends to be positive because it gave an electron away (electrons are negatively charged), and the non-metal tends to be negative because it accepted an electron from the metal. These ions are what conducts electricity and the more ions there are, the more electricity they can conduct. This conductive property of ions is what allows the salinity sensor to determine the salinity of a solution, based on the number of salt ions in the water. Figure 15 shows the dissociation or separation of the two elements in table salt, sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl). Notice that the metal (Na) becomes a positively charged ion while the non-metal (Cl) becomes a negatively charged ion based on the electron exchange.   
These newer elements are called ions and they can either be positive or negative. The metal ion tends to be positive because it gave an electron away (electrons are negatively charged), and the non-metal tends to be negative because it accepted an electron from the metal. These ions are what conducts electricity and the more ions there are, the more electricity they can conduct. This conductive property of ions is what allows the salinity sensor to determine the salinity of a solution, based on the number of salt ions in the water. Figure 15 shows the dissociation or separation of the two elements in table salt, sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl). Notice that the metal (Na) becomes a positively charged ion while the non-metal (Cl) becomes a negatively charged ion based on the electron exchange.   


[[Image:MRR10.jpg|thumb|500px|center|Figure 15: Dissociation of NaCl<ref name="stevenson">http://www.ltcconline.net/stevenson/2008CHM101Fall/CHM101LectureNotes20081022.htm</ref>.]]
[[Image:MRR10.jpg|thumb|500px|center|Figure 6: Dissociation of NaCl<ref name="stevenson">http://www.ltcconline.net/stevenson/2008CHM101Fall/CHM101LectureNotes20081022.htm</ref>.]]


==== Why It's Important ====
Salinity plays an important role is determining the chemistry of organisms that live in the oceans and seas that cover the Earth because it governs physical characteristics such as density and heat capacity. These physical characteristics also determine which organisms and plants can survive in a body of salt water. As described earlier, the Dead Sea has a very high salinity, causing the density to increase and creating a harsh environment that few life forms can survive in.
Salinity plays an important role is determining the chemistry of organisms that live in the oceans and seas that cover the Earth because it governs physical characteristics such as density and heat capacity. These physical characteristics also determine which organisms and plants can survive in a body of salt water. As described earlier, the Dead Sea has a very high salinity, causing the density to increase and creating a harsh environment that few life forms can survive in.


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<math>Specific Gravity = \frac{\rho}{\rho_{reference}}\!\,</math>
<math>Specific Gravity = \frac{\rho}{\rho_{reference}}\!\,</math>


Specific gravity ratios are used for many purposes in chemistry, but for this project it plays an important role in determining whether fish can survive in certain salinities. Freshwater fish can survive in bodies of water with a specific gravity ranging from 0.98 &ndash; 1.00 and saltwater fish can survive in water with a specific gravity ranging from 0.93 &ndash; 0.98. Plants and organisms that can live in a wide range of salinities can survive with specific gravities ranging from 0.90 &ndash; 0.95 and those that can survive in extremely saline conditions can live in waters with specific gravities ranging from 0.86 &ndash; 0.89. These conditions are specific to this project only and do not replicate the real ratios.
Specific gravity ratios are used for many purposes in chemistry, but for this project it plays an important role in determining whether fish can survive in certain salinities. Freshwater fish can survive in bodies of water with a specific gravity ranging from 0.98 &ndash; 1.00 and saltwater fish can survive in water with a specific gravity ranging from 0.93 &ndash; 0.98. Plants and organisms that can live in a wide range of salinities can survive with specific gravities ranging from 0.90 &ndash; 0.95 and those that can survive in extremely saline conditions can live in waters with specific gravities ranging from 0.86 &ndash; 0.89. These conditions are specific to this project only and do not replicate the real ratios. In salinity (ppt) terms, freshwater fish can only survive in salinities less than 3 ppt. The salinities of bodies of water found on Earth are displayed below as a reference for other types of fish and organisms:
 
{|class="wikitable" style="float: center; margin-top: 0px; margin-left:13px;"
|+style="caption-side:bottom; white-space:nowrap;"|Figure X. Salinity values of various bodies of water on Earth, measured in ppt.
!Body of Water!!Salinity
|-
|Baltic Sea || 8 ppt
|-
|Black Sea || 18 ppt
|-
|Average Seawater || 34.7 ppt
|-
|Mediterranean Sea || 39 ppt
|-
|Red Sea || 40 ppt
|-
|Mono Lake || >50 ppt
|}


Typically, chemists use the density of a solution to estimate its salinity, but for this project the opposite approach will be used. Using the salinity reading from the water sources on the Mars course, the density of these sources can be estimated. The procedure for obtaining data, making a graph, and analyzing the data are all explained below. Once the density of the Mars water sources are determined, they can be used to answer a series of questions concerning whether life is sustainable on Mars.
Typically, chemists use the density of a solution to estimate its salinity, but for this project, both the salinity and specific gravity will be used to determine whether a body of water can sustain life or not.


=== pH ===
=== pH ===
In order to recognize the safety and viability of aqueous solutions in chemical reactions, the pH needs to be calculated.  The pH numeric scale is used to determine the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.  At the top of the scale, 14 is for very strong bases, and 0 is for the strongest acid.  In the middle of the scale, 7 is for neutral aqueous solutions. 
To determine the pH, one must use an indicator.  These indicators are halochromic chemical compounds added in small amounts to solutions to determine the pH visually.  The different pH levels and their corresponding color can be seen in the picture below.
[[Image:Mrr_pH.JPG|thumb|500px|center|Figure 8: pH indicator colors and their corresponding pH values]]
pH plays a vital factor in Martian exploration due to the connection between the soil's pH and its ability to harbor vegetation.  On Earth, agriculture usually occurs in soil with a pH between 5.5 and 7.  However, on Mars the pH is considerably higher.  In August 2008,  the Phoenix Lander conducted basic chemical analysis and determined the pH of martian soil.  It was found that the soil had a pH of 8.3 and contained salt perchlorate.


==== Why It's Important ====
The samples in this test are aqueous solutions that have been mixed with Martian soil and filtered to be clear. pH indicator will be used to determine whether plants can grow on the surface of Mars.


=== Hematite and Wustite ===
=== Magnetite, Hematite, and Wustite ===
The issue that plagues a voyage to Mars is the number of resources necessary for the astronauts to have a successful return trip. The inherent weight of the fuel alone makes the trip exceptionally difficult. However, as unmanned missions have progressed the presence of '''hematite''' (Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) and '''wustite''' (FeO) on the surface of Mars brings a new hope to a mission of this sort.
For the majority of rockets, pressurized hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>) is the main source of fuel. Its high potential energy, relatively low weight, and abundance make it an ideal choice. On Mars, there is an abundance of both hematite and wustite. Hematite, a reddish black mineral consisting of ferric oxide, and wustite, a greenish gray crystallite, are the two martian components required. Prior to the creation of the hydrogen fuel, the hematite and hydrogen must be reacted to create '''magnetite''' (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>). With magnetite and wustite, hydrogen can be created, which is a form of rocket fuel.  On Mars this process is an in-situ, on location, production of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide through a two-step thermochemical splitting process or redox cycle.  In this process, hydrogen reacts with magnetite to form wustite, which is then combined with water to create hydrogen.  The chemical equations can be seen below:
* <math>3Fe_2O_3 + CO \rightarrow 2Fe_3O_4 + CO_2</math>
* <math>Fe_3O_4 (+ energy) \rightarrow 3FeO + \frac{1}{2}O_2</math>
* <math>3FeO + H_2O \rightarrow Fe_3O_4 + H_2</math>


==== Why It's Important ====
The samples in this course consist of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>. The amount of H<sub>2</sub> (rocket fuel) can be determined from the amount of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> found in the sample by using the above chemical reactions.
[[Image:Mrr_rocket.JPG|thumb|500px|center|Figure 9: SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch on February 6, 2018]]


== Obtaining and Analyzing Data ==
== Obtaining and Analyzing Data ==
For the second part of this project, calculations will be done on the water sources and soil samples from the course. This data will be used to answer each test's objective. This part requires the use of a robot and the EV3 program. The robot may be touched for this part only. It will also have to be done during an Open Lab session and a TA will the following materials:  
For the second part of this project, calculations will be done on the water sources and soil samples from the course. This data will be used to answer each test's objective. This part requires the use of a robot and the EV3 program. The robot may be touched for this part only. It will also have to be done during an Open Lab session and a TA will the following materials:  
* Testing Kit
*For Salinity Test
** Two 100 mL beakers filled with salt water
** One 100 mL beaker filled with salt water
** One 100 mL beaker filled with soil
** Salinity sensor
** One 100 mL beaker filled with red iron oxide, black iron oxide, and salt
** A scale
** Two coffee filters
*For pH Test
** An empty beaker
**One 100 mL beaker filled with solution
* A bar magnet
**pH indicator
* Universal indicator
**A stirring stick
* Salinity sensor
*For Fuel Test
* A scale
** One packet of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>
** One packet of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>
** One empty packet (to tare)
** A scale


The three tests are as follows:
== Testing Procedures ==
Depending on the samples the robot travels to, there are tests that must be done in order to complete the mission.


Soil Separation
Fuel Test (Yellow Soil Sample)
* A mixture of wustite, hematite, and salt must be separated in order to find out how much rocket fuel can be produced by the sample found on Mars
* A packet of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and a packet of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> must be weighed in order to find out how much rocket fuel can be produced by the samples found on Mars
** Analyze the materials given to create a procedure to separate the compounds
** Tare the scale using the empty packet
** Mass the packet of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>
** Mass the packet of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>
** Calculate how much rocket fuel can be created and answer Analysis questions accordingly
** Calculate how much rocket fuel can be created and answer Analysis questions accordingly
pH Test
pH Test (Red Soil Sample)
* A sample of soil must be tested to see if plants can grow
* A sample of soil must be tested to see if plants can grow
** Use universal indicator to determine the pH levels of the soil on Mars
** Use universal indicator to determine the pH levels of the soil on Mars
** Answer Analysis questions using the results
** Answer Analysis questions using the results
Water Salinity
Water Salinity
* Two water samples must be tested to determine if life can exist in the water on Mars
* Three water samples must be tested to determine if life can exist in the water on Mars
** Use the salinity sensor and EV3 program to determine salinity
** Use the salinity sensor and EV3 program to determine salinity
** Calculate specific gravity and answer Analysis questions accordingly
** Calculate specific gravity and answer Analysis questions accordingly
Line 144: Line 447:
<math>Density(\rho) = \frac{m}{V}\!\,</math>
<math>Density(\rho) = \frac{m}{V}\!\,</math>


All of the information recorded in this part of the section should be typed up on a Word document. Please refer to each test's set of questions to write the document.
All of the information recorded in this part of the section should be typed up on a Word document. Please download the Part 2 template and refer to each test's set of questions to complete the document.


== Analysis ==
== Analysis ==
Determine the density of the water source samples that were recorded on the Mars course in part one of this project. The density of this water source taken from the Mars course will be used to answer the following questions:
In the [[Media:MARS ROVER ROBOT_DATA SPECIFICATIONS SHEET.pdf|Part 2 template]], answer the following questions. Only answer questions for the tests performed:
* Which, if any, of the Mars water sources are habitable for freshwater fish?
 
* Which, if any, of the Mars water sources are habitable for saltwater fish?
* Salinity Test
* Would euryhalines survive? How about halophiles?
** What are the salinities of the three samples?
* Based on the answers to the other three questions, write four to five sentences answering the question "Could life exist on Mars?"
** The salinity of the great lakes is at most 0.60 ppt, the salinity of the atlantic ocean is 37 ppt. Just based on salinity is it reasonable to suspect that fish can survive in the salinity conditions of these waters?
** Name 3 examples of how salinity impacts the environment on Earth? Both on land and in water.
*pH Test
** What is the number on the sample's beaker?
** What is the pH of the sample?
** Can plants survive in this pH? If so, name three plants that could potentially be planted.
*Fuel Test
** How much Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (in grams) was found in the sample?
** How much Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> (in grams) was found in the sample?
** How much fuel (H<sub>2</sub>) can be produced (in grams) by the Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> found in the sample? Show calculations.
** How much Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (in kilograms) is needed to produced 5kg of (H<sub>2</sub>)? Show calculations.


These questions along with their answers should be typed up neatly in a Microsoft Word document, showing all the formulas and calculations used to answer the questions as well as a few sentences explaining the calculations and the thought process. A simple formula and calculation will not suffice. Please note that these questions do require some critical thinking.
Show all the formulas and calculations used to answer the questions as well as a few sentences explaining the calculations and the thought process. A simple formula and calculation will not suffice. Please note that these questions do require some critical thinking.


'''<nowiki>*</nowiki> Please remember to save all documents from part two (Excel sheet, graph, questions and answers) because they are required to commission and should all be included in the final submission folder. '''
'''<nowiki>*</nowiki> Please remember to save all documents from part two (questions and answers) because they are required for final submission. '''


{{SLDP: Milestones and Benchmarks}}
{{SLDP: Milestones and Benchmarks}}


{{SLDP: Milestone 1 (Robots)}}
{{SLDP: Milestone 1 (Robots)}}


{{SLDP: Benchmark A}}
{{SLDP: Benchmark A}}
 
* Obtain one soil reading from any of the four available soil sources


{{SLDP: Milestone 2 (Robots)}}
{{SLDP: Milestone 2 (Robots)}}


{{SLDP: Benchmark B}}
{{SLDP: Benchmark B}}
* Obtain a first soil reading from any of the four available soil sources
* Return to the landing site to pick up salinity sensor if necessary
* Obtain a second reading from a water source


{{SLDP: Milestone 3 (Robots)}}
{{SLDP: Milestone 3 (Robots)}}


{{SLDP: Commissioning}}
{{SLDP: Commissioning}}
* Answered questions from [[#Main Tasks 2|Data Specifications: Main Tasks]]
* Obtain a water and soil reading
*: '''<span style="text-decoration: underline;">Note</span>''': All questions and answers (including formulas and calculations as well as explanations) must be neatly typed on a MS Word Document.
* Return to the landing site
* Conduct all corresponding tests
* Completed [[Media:MARS ROVER ROBOT_DATA SPECIFICATIONS SHEET.pdf|Part 2 Template]] of test results from [[#Analysis|Data Specifications: Analysis]]  
**NOTE: UAI students do NOT need to complete Part 2 in order to commission
 


{{SLDP: Final Presentation}}
{{SLDP: Final Presentation}}
Line 187: Line 508:
{{SLDP: Submission}}
{{SLDP: Submission}}
** Final presentation
** Final presentation
** Cover page and table of contents
** Final Mindstorms program
** Final Mindstorms program
** Initial sketch
** Initial sketch
Line 195: Line 515:
** Final cost estimate
** Final cost estimate
** Resume(s) (No fictitious resumes will be accepted.)
** Resume(s) (No fictitious resumes will be accepted.)
** Microsoft Word document of test results from [[#Main Tasks 2|Data Specifications: Main Tasks]]
** Completed [[Media:MARS ROVER ROBOT_DATA SPECIFICATIONS SHEET.pdf|Part 2 Template]] of test results from [[#Analysis|Data Specifications: Analysis]]


{{SLDP: Early Acceptance}}
{{SLDP: Early Acceptance}}
Line 210: Line 530:


:No. You can't bump Mars, so bumping the course is not an option.
:No. You can't bump Mars, so bumping the course is not an option.
Can we rubber band the soil collection module to the robot?
:No. The module has to be fixed to the robot using only EV3 pieces that came in your kit. Regular Legos cannot be used.
Can we put the soil collection module back on the robot once it's been placed on a soil sample?
:No. The soil collection module must remain on the soil sample for the rest of the robot's run.


= Appendix: Programming with Vernier Sensors =
= Appendix: Programming with Vernier Sensors =
Line 227: Line 555:
[[Image:MRR16.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 21: Vernier sensor block (EV3).]]
[[Image:MRR16.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 21: Vernier sensor block (EV3).]]


After the button is pressed go to "Measure" -> "More Sensors" -> "Salinity ppt." You should see that the image looks like the one in Figure 22.
After the button is pressed go to "Measure" -> "More Sensors" -> "Salinity ppt." You should see that the image looks similar to the one in Figure 22.


[[Image:MRR17.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 22: Salinity sensor block.]]
[[Image:Salinity_sensor_block.PNG|thumb|500px|center|Figure 22: Salinity sensor block.]]


Now, we are going to create a program to make the robot continuously measure the salinity for five seconds and display the reading on the EV3 brick. To do this, we must input a loop that can be found under the orange palette. Drag the loop onto the main frame. Click on the infinity symbol under the red arrows on the loop switch and change it to time, which can be found all the way at the bottom. Change the number to the right of the button to five. It should now look like the program in Figure 23.
Now, we are going to create a program to make the robot continuously measure the salinity and display the reading on the EV3 brick. To do this, we must input a loop that can be found under the orange palette. Drag the loop onto the main frame. It should now look like the program in Figure 23.


[[Image:MRR18.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 23: Loop with salinity sensor block.]]
[[Image:Salinity_sensor_loop.PNG|thumb|500px|center|Figure 23: Loop with salinity sensor block.]]
* To change the runtime to a specific amount of time, click on the infinity symbol under the red arrows on the loop switch and change it to time, which can be found all the way at the bottom. Change the number to the right of the button to the desired time.


We are now going to have the salinity reading display on the EV3 brick. Go to the green palette at the bottom of the program, click on the display block and drag it onto the main frame. On the display block, click on the image folder and go to text, then pixels. The block should look like the one in Figure 24.
We are now going to have the salinity reading display on the EV3 brick. Go to the green palette at the bottom of the program, click on the display block and drag it onto the main frame. On the display block, click on the image folder and go to text, then pixels. The block should look like the one in Figure 24.
Line 239: Line 568:
[[Image:MRR19.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 24: Display block.]]
[[Image:MRR19.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 24: Display block.]]


At the top of the display sensor block, the name "MINDSTORMS" is displayed. Click on the name and change it to "Wired." The block should look exactly the same except with one more slot immediately to the left of the spot with the check mark. Input the display block into the loop previously made and wire it like the picture in Figure 25. This program will now allow the salinity sensor to read the measurement and display it on the brick for five seconds.
At the top of the display sensor block, the name "MINDSTORMS" is displayed. Click on the name and change it to "Wired." The block should look exactly the same except with one more slot immediately to the left of the spot with the check mark. Input the display block into the loop previously made and wire it like the picture in Figure 25. This program will now allow the salinity sensor to read the measurement and display it on the brick until the program is stopped.


[[Image:MRR20.png|thumb|500px|center|Figure 25: Sample salinity reading program.]]
[[Image:Salinity_sensor_full.PNG|thumb|500px|center|Figure 25: Sample salinity reading program.]]
 
*Note: For measuring salinity for Part 2, it's recommended to run the loop continuously in order to continuously display the salinity until the program is stopped.


= References =
= References =
{{Reflist}}
{{Reflist}}


{{Semester-Long Design Project}}
{{Semester-Long Design Project}}-->

Latest revision as of 21:20, 16 November 2022

Request for Proposal: Mars Rover Robot (MRR)



Introduction and Overview

The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently received strong evidence of volcanic activity on the long-believed volcanically dormant planet, Mars. Radar measurements from the Mars Express Spacecraft have detected the presence of a 20 km wide lake of liquid water located underneath a layer of ice in the Planum Australe region. Modern research about the discovery suggests that the only way to maintain water in the liquid state in the conditions present on Mars is with the presence of a magma chamber located underneath the body of liquid water. In order to calculate the possibility of active volcanic activity on the Red Planet, NASA has issued a request for proposal for a rover capable of traversing the steep slopes of Olympus Mons, the second tallest mountain and largest volcano in the solar system. This rover will dig near the base of the volcano as well as photograph it from its peak. By studying the data obtained, NASA hopes to understand the past volcanic activity of the planet and use that data to theorize the possibility of present-day volcanic activity.

The mission has two parts that must be completed. The first part is to collect a rock sample and bring it back to the start point for analysis. The second part of the mission involves climbing to the peak of a mountain to take a picture of the surrounding environment. To complete the mission, a sensor must be used to increase the accuracy of the rover's movement.

Specifications

Design a robot using Fusion 360 as your primary design tool. The robot must meet the following specifications:

  • Size & Material Constraints
    • The robot must fit within a 15 in x 15 in footprint.
    • The design must use the materials provided. A cost estimate of the robot’s components must be created and all revisions to the cost estimate must be recorded and explained.
  • Sensor Requirement
    • The design must incorporate a sensor of choice. This could be a gyro sensor, ultrasonic sensor, or touch sensor.
  • Microcontroller Requirement
    • The robot’s movements must be directed by an Arduino program. All revisions to the Arduino program must be recorded and explained.
  • Autonomous Navigation
    • The robot must be fully autonomous, and therefore cannot be touched by any person during testing. The Arduino program may not be altered or switched during any part of the mission.


Please refer to the course syllabus for all due dates.

Please note that this project reflects real life scenarios; the robot must be able to handle minor imperfections in the course. Any attempt to physically step on the course or have the robot drive off a cliff will result in a point penalty in your final project grade due to safety precautions.

Course Layout

The MRR course consists of two primary ramps, labeled Ramps 2 and 3, and one additional ramp, Ramp 1. The robot must traverse the uneven terrain to reach the rock sample, return to the Start tile, and finally traverse Ramps 2 and 3 and come to a complete stop at the peak. For extra credit, the robot can traverse Ramp 1 and/or return to the start position after reaching the highest point on the mountain. In completing the extra credit, the robot must descend the primary ramp similar to how it ascended it for Commissioning. The robot cannot jump off the primary ramp directly to Ramp 1.


Figure 1: Labeled View of MRR Navigation Field

Microsoft Project

You must create a project schedule to manage your time in Microsoft Project. You can learn Microsoft Project by doing the MS Project Skill Builder. This schedule must include all tasks related to the project from the start of the project to Submission. Click here to access the guide on how to transfer a file. The Microsoft Project schedule should include the following:

  • Minimum of 20 tasks, excluding Milestones
  • Milestones should be clearly indicated on the project plan (duration of zero days)
  • Each task must include the person responsible for completing the task (resource names)
  • Use the "Copy Picture" function to include the project plan in the presentations. Do not take a screenshot
  • Gantt chart must be displayed alongside the tasks list (fit onto one slide)
  • Gantt chart must clearly show a progress line
  • Clearly state during the presentation whether the project is on-time, behind schedule, or ahead of schedule

For help planning the project, review the manual page Planning Project Scheduling & Costs.

Drawings

All drawings and sketches should be made using the Assembly tool in Fusion 360. Fusion 360 can be downloaded for free from the Autodesk website using an NYU email or accessed from any computer in the Modelshop during Open Lab hours.

Using Fusion 360, create four drawings of the robot: front, top, most detailed side, and a drawing of the gear train(s). Sensors, motors, and gears must be included in each drawing. Smaller pieces such as nuts, bolts, axles, etc. may be omitted from the drawings.

Each revision of the design must be documented and all changes must be presented during Milestone presentations.

Figure 2: Example Drawing of VEX MRR

Model

You must build a scale model (1:1) of your design. The following materials will be provided:

  1. VEX robotics pieces
  2. Basic electronics prototyping kit
  3. Sensors
  4. Motors

The finished MRR must not exceed a footprint of 15 in × 15 in. There is no height limitation. Any additional components that the MRR is equipped with must also fit within the footprint. Additional materials can be supplied by your TA.

Cost Estimate

Once a robot design is complete, a cost estimate must be generated that specifies the cost of all the materials and labor required for the construction of the design. Tabulate this cost information clearly in an Excel spreadsheet, using the materials cost list provided. Help in calculating the cost is available by reviewing how to plan the schedule and calculate costs for a project. The costs for the parts can be found on the price list for VEX parts for robot projects.

Note: You should only use the materials contained in the price list for VEX parts for robot projects. If you want to use other parts, get permission from your faculty member to do so, and also to determine the cost of the parts you want to use that are not in this price list.

The cost estimate should include the following:

  • Labor cost breakdown with hours and rates
  • Consolidate low-cost pieces: axles, beams, bricks, bushings, connectors, gears, plates
  • Consolidate low-cost electrical components: microcontrollers, breadboard, wires, motor shield, etc.
  • Itemize high-cost pieces: sensors, motors, and battery
  • Total cost must be shown in the bottom right corner

CATME

When working on engineering team projects, peer evaluations and self-evaluations are critical for assessing how effective your contributions are to the team. In our course, your recitation professor will use evaluations at each Milestone using a software called the Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member Effectiveness (CATME). More information can be found on the Teamwork Expectations page.

Engineering Notebook

While working on your project, you are expected to keep a record of all work done, as well as future plans and goals. In order to complete a Benchmark assessment, show your Engineering Notebook to the Open Lab TA completing your assessment. For Milestone 1, Milestone 2, Milestone 3, and Final Submission you must have it approved by your Recitation Professor and be prepared to make it available to an Open Lab TA in a Word Document (DOC or DOCX) format. A guide to writing the notebook, as well as a basic overview of its expectations and frequency at which you should log in your notebook, can be found on the Keeping an Engineering Notebook page.

Extra Credit

  • Returning to the starting position after reaching the highest peak of the mountain. The robot must be able to descend the primary ramp similar to how it ascended the ramp
  • Picking up the rock sample with a claw or other mechanism
  • Completing Benchmark A, Benchmark B, or Submission early, or
  • Completing your respective SLDP's 3D printing extra credit task as described in the 3D Printing and Logo Guide

Refer to the EG1004 Grading Policy for exact point values. Creativity and innovation are always rewarded. Original designs will receive extra credit.

Milestones, Benchmarks, and Deliverables

As you work on your project, you will be required to present periodic reports on your progress. We call these Milestones. All of the items assigned in each phase of the project are called Benchmark deliverables. These deliverables often consist of a combination of written submissions, presentations, and demonstrations. Benchmark assessments evaluate the progress of your project.

Preliminary Design Investigation

The Preliminary Design Investigation (PDI) is extremely important, as it lays the groundwork for your project. You will be outlining your project idea, inspiration, and goals.

The PDI must include:

  • Cover Page
  • Project Overview
  • Goals & Objectives
  • Design & Approach
  • Cost Estimate
  • Project Schedule
  • Relevant Pictures

An example PDI template can be found here. The PDI is due by Benchmark A. Do not forget to include the items listed above. Use this link to access the VEX PDI Rubric.

Milestone 1

See How To Give a Milestone Presentation for the format of a Milestone presentation.

Milestone 1 should act as a presentation of your Preliminary Design Investigation. It is important that you outline your project goals and show that your project is realizable. This includes:

  • Project description
  • Design approach
  • Mission statement
  • Preliminary CAD drawing of robot
  • Cost estimate
  • Microsoft Project schedule
      • Click here to access the guide on how to transfer a file
  • Progress update: current state of the project


Look Ahead: What tasks are planned between now and Milestone 2?

Benchmark Assessment A

Benchmark assessments evaluate the progress of your project. Benchmark Assessment A is due at the end of Model Shop Session II. There are penalties for not completing this on time. Refer to the EG1004 Grading Policy for more information.

To pass Benchmark A, your design must complete all of the following:

  • Robot reaches the rock sample (the robot does not have to pick it up)
  • Preliminary Design Investigation
  • Submit an .STL and a .gcode file of the team logo or extra credit print through the 3D Printing Submission portal on the EG website
  • Updated Engineering Notebook

Milestone 2

See How To Give a Milestone Presentation for the format of a Milestone presentation.

Milestone 2 will be a project progress update. You must explain all changes and developments made thus far, particularly in regards to Benchmark A. Include whether or not you were able to complete your Benchmark A requirements, and if not, explain why. Also, highlight any changes you plan on making to your design or project, in general. Your Milestone 2 presentation must include:

  • Project description
  • Design approach
  • Design changes since Milestone 1
  • Mission statement
  • Technical design description:
    • CAD drawings: top, front, most detailed side, isometric, gear train
      • If the robot does not use any gears, make sure to explicitly state that in your presentation
    • Flowchart of Code
    • Circuit diagrams
  • Cost estimate (previous and current). What changes were made?
  • Microsoft Project schedule (previous and current). What changes were made?
    • Click here to access the guide on how to transfer a file
  • Progress update: current state of the project (time, budget, etc.)


Look Ahead: What tasks are planned between now and Milestone 3?

Benchmark Assessment B

Benchmark Assessment B is due at the end of Model Shop Session III. There are penalties for not completing this on time. Refer to the EG1004 Grading Policy for more information.

To pass, complete all of the following tasks:

  • Rock sample is carried by the robot
  • Robot returns to the start tile
  • Implement and use a sensor to aid the robot's navigation
  • Have an .STL and a .gcode file of the team logo or extra credit print approved through the 3D Printing Submission portal on the EG website
  • Updated Engineering Notebook

Milestone 3

See How To Give a Milestone Presentation for the format of a Milestone presentation.

Milestone 3 will be the last project progress update. You must explain all changes and developments made thus far, particularly in regards to Benchmark B. Include whether or not you were able to complete your Benchmark B requirements, and if not, explain why. Also, highlight any changes you plan on making to your design or project, in general. Your Milestone 3 presentation must include:

  • Project description
  • Design approach
  • Design changes since Milestone 2
  • Mission statement
  • Technical design description:
    • CAD drawings: top, front, most detailed side, isometric, gear train
    • Flowchart of Code
    • Circuit and Schematic diagrams
  • Cost estimate (previous and current). What changes were made?
  • Microsoft Project schedule (previous and current). What changes were made?
    • Click here to access the guide on how to transfer a file
  • Progress update: current state of the project (time, budget, etc.)


Look Ahead: What tasks are planned between now and the completion of the project?

Commissioning

Refer to the syllabus for the Commissioning deadline. There are penalties for not completing this on time. Refer to the EG1004 Grading Policy for more information.

To pass, the design must complete all of the following:

  • Complete tasks for Benchmarks A and B
  • Robot reaches the highest point of the mountain
    • The robot must come to a complete stop at the peak
  • Robot meets all specifications
  • Have an .STL file of the team logo or extra credit print printed through the 3D Printing Submission portal on the EG website
  • All 3D prints must be approved by a Protolab TA
  • Updated Engineering Notebook

The robot must complete the required tasks in a single run in order to obtain full credit for commissioning.

Final Design Report

The Final Design Report (FDR) provides a comprehensive overview of your project process and developments from initial brainstorm to finished proof of concept. All project expectations and outcomes must be clearly detailed in the document. This report will also provide you with documentation experience useful for completing your Senior Design final report and other projects.

The Final Design Report must include the following documentation:

  • CAD drawings
  • Wiring Diagrams
  • Commented code
  • Project schedule
  • Cost estimate

Use this Final Design Report template with the following outline:

  • Introduction
    • Purpose of Project
    • Background
  • Requirements
    • Physical Components
    • Software Components
  • Procedures
    • Physical Construction
    • Software Setup
    • Software Troubleshooting
  • Milestone and Final Product Requirements
    • Benchmark A Requirements
    • Benchmark B Requirements
    • Final Submission Requirements
    • Human Resources and Training (e.g. TA expertise utilized, etc.)
  • Results
    • Benchmark A Results
    • Benchmark B Results
    • Difficulties Experienced
  • Conclusion
    • Results of Project
    • Future Improvements

The FDR is due at the time of submission.


Final Presentation

The Final Presentation will be a technical briefing, similar to the Milestones, but also serves as a sales presentation explaining why your company should be selected instead of the competition. Please include the following:

  • Problem statement
  • Solution overview
  • Company description and qualifications
  • CAD Drawings
  • Flowchart of Code
  • Circuit and Schematic Diagrams
  • Cost estimate
  • Microsoft Project schedule
  • Video demonstration
  • Why should your company be awarded this contract?


Submission

All SLDPs must be submitted online. Please visit this page for the link to the Project Submission form and each SLDP group's individualized login information. To submit, you must login to the EG1004 website using this special login information. Submitting with your NYU account or any other account will generate an error.

Please note the deliverables for this project are as follows. If any of the following items are missing, you will be penalized. Give yourselves plenty of time to upload all necessary files, especially the large ones which take longer. Be sure to click submit at the bottom of the form. The following list includes deliverable items that are expected from your group:

  • Submission deliverables:
    • Final presentation
    • Final Arduino program
    • Final circuit diagrams
    • Initial sketch
    • All the drawings of your design (initial through final)
    • Video
    • Final Microsoft Project schedule
    • Final cost estimate
    • Resume(s) (no fictitious resumes will be accepted)
    • Final notebook/project journal
    • Final Design Report

You may resubmit at any time before the deadline. Please note that submission times are based on the most recent submission.

Early Submission

If you submit your project one academic week early (before the end of your lab period the week before the Final Submission Deadline), you are eligible for a bonus that will be added to your final semester-long project grade. You must submit all deliverables one academic week before the submission deadline (see syllabus for exact date). The deliverables received early are the ones you will use in your presentation. No adjustments to the submitted deliverables will be accepted.

Late Submission

Late Submission is not allowed. If you do not Commission or Partial Commission by the deadline set forth in the syllabus, you will not be allowed to submit and will receive a zero for the project grade. In order to receive Partial Commissioning, two TAs must evaluate the project and determine its degree of completion according to the Commissioning requirements and you will be given a grade accordingly. Please refer to the EG1004 Grading Policy for more information.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Can we step on the course as it is difficult to retrieve a robot from the middle of the course due to its size?

A: No. If needed, you can ask a TA to assist you.

Q: Can we bump the course if the robot gets stuck?

A: No. You can't bump Mars, so bumping the course is not an option.

Q: Can we use rubber bands on the wheels for more traction?

A: Yes. This is highly encouraged, especially when dealing with slopes.

Q: All the VEX parts are really big. Is there a size constraint?

A: There is a soft size limitation of a 15 in × 15 in footprint. If you slightly exceed this constraint, it is okay, but you may encounter difficulties in navigating the robot through the course.

Q: Can our robot jump from one hill to another?

A: No. This will cause damage to both the robot and course and is also unsafe. If your robot does this, your trial will be invalidated and you may receive point penalties to your final project grade.

Q: Can we laser cut or 3D print a robot part or course modification?

A: You may create a 3D printed or laser cut robot modification; however, due to the size of our MRR course we do not allow course modifications.

Q: How should I get started with building my robot?

A: For help with building, refer to the VEX How-To Manual.