Difference between revisions of "Computer Aided Design (CAD) Competition"

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<br /><font color="red"><b>Please visit the MakerSpace before this lab and complete their Safety Orientation. Sign up for sessions provided specifically for EG1003 students [https://orgsync.com/163395/events?view=upcoming.  here]'''</font> If you have already completed the Safety Orientation, please fill out [https://forms.gle/3B3p7ZujPEBAzY6w6 this form] to receive credit. There will be a 20 point penalty on the lab report for not completing this training before the beginning of this lab.</b>-->
<br /><font color="red"><b>Please visit the MakerSpace before this lab and complete their Safety Orientation. Sign up for sessions provided specifically for EG1003 students [https://orgsync.com/163395/events?view=upcoming.  here]'''</font> If you have already completed the Safety Orientation, please fill out [https://forms.gle/3B3p7ZujPEBAzY6w6 this form] to receive credit. There will be a 20 point penalty on the lab report for not completing this training before the beginning of this lab.</b>-->


<font color="red">'''Please view the videos that explain this lab prior to performing the exercise to ensure it will be completed in the time allotted. The required videos are listed under this page on the main page of the manual.'''</font>
<font color="red">'''Please review the CAD Guide presentation that explains the fundamentals of CAD software prior to performing the lab. The presentation is listed underneath the title Lab 2 on the EG1003 Lab Manual.'''</font>


= Objective =
= Objective =


The first experimental objective of this lab is to understand the fundamentals of CAD and 3D printing by designing an NYU logo keychain in Autodesk Fusion 360 and preparing it for 3D printing in Cura. The second objective is to modify a poorly-designed part using Autodesk Fusion 360 in a competition setting. The competition will be ranked based on a design ratio consisting of a safety factor and overall volume.
The first experimental objective of this lab is to understand the fundamentals of computer aided design (CAD) software and 3D printing by designing an NYU logo keychain in Autodesk Fusion 360 and preparing it for 3D printing in Cura. The second objective is to modify a poorly-designed part using Autodesk Fusion 360 in a competition. The competition will be ranked by a design ratio that uses the part’s initial and final safety factor and initial and final volume.


= Overview =
= Overview =
== Computer-Aided Design ==
== Computer-Aided Design ==
CAD programs, which include Autodesk's Fusion 360, AutoCAD, and Revit; Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks; and Google SketchUp, allow engineers to make dimensioned, scaled drawings. These drawings are used to manufacture equipment, build infrastructure, and allow designers to display their designs with complete specifications and detail. Orthographic views (top, bottom, side, front, back) can be used to document the technical specifications in drawings needed for production while axonometric views (isometric, dimetric, trimetric) can be used to view the final 3D representation of a product.
CAD softwares, which include Autodesk's Fusion 360, AutoCAD, Revit, Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks, and Google SketchUp, allow engineers to make dimensioned, scaled drawings. These drawings are used to manufacture equipment, build infrastructure, and allow designers to display their designs with complete specifications and detail. Orthographic views (top, bottom, side, front, back) can be used to document the technical specifications in drawings needed for production while axonometric views (isometric, dimetric, trimetric) can be used to view the final 3D representation of a product.


This exercise will teach the basics of Autodesk Fusion 360, 3D file formats, the basics of 3D printing, and the skills needed to create simple 3D files and prepare them to be 3D printed.
This exercise will teach the basics of Autodesk Fusion 360, 3D file formats, 3D printing, and the skills needed to create simple 3D files and prepare them to be 3D printed.
 
== Three-Dimensional Printing (3D Printing) ==
3D printing allows rapid prototyping and onsite manufacturing of products. Initially done with plastic, 3D printing now uses new techniques with new materials, such as aluminum, bronze, and glass. Biomaterials are also being used, such as 3D printing ear cartilage and liver tissue. As the 3D printing industry grows, 3D printing has become a significant part of many engineering fields.
 
In this course, 3D printing can be used to produce prototype components, building models, SLDP course modifications, robot parts, and a company logo.
 
== Fusion 360 ==
Autodesk Fusion 360 is a cloud-based software that uses remote servers hosted via the internet to process, store, and compute data. This CAD tool creates precisely scaled drawings. These drawings are turned into 3D models that are used to visualize designs through photorealistic renderings and to simulate how a design performs under applied forces or loads. Fusion 360 can also be used for designing in computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), computer-aided engineering (CAE), animation, and more.
 
The two workspaces in Fusion 360 that will be used in this experiment are '''Design''' and '''Simulation''' (Figure 1). The '''Design''' workspace creates mechanical designs that contain information about geometric constraints, and the '''Simulation''' workspace simulates applied loads on a design to observe the possibility of deformation or failure.
 
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 1.PNG|136px|thumb|center|Figure 1: Fusion 360 Workspaces]]
 
There are two tabs -- '''Create''' and '''Modify''' -- in the '''Design''' workspace. The '''Create''' and '''Modify''' tabs contain the functions needed for sketching and building a 3D model. They create and modify sketches when in sketch mode (Figure 2).
 
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 2.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 2: Create and Modify Tabs in Sketch Mode]]
 
A <b>Sketch</b> creates the 2D shapes that are the bases for all 3D models. When first sketching the shapes, they do not have to have accurate dimensions or scale. Using the <b>Sketch Dimension</b> tool and the <b>Constraints</b> functions, the base shape and 3D model can be edited without starting over (Figure 3).
 
[[File: Lab 1 Figure 3.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 3: Before (Left) and After (Right) of Sketch Using the Sketch Dimension Tool]]
 
Once a sketch is complete, the '''Create''' and '''Modify''' tabs are also used to generate the 3D model (Figure 4).
 
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 4.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 4: Create and Modify Tabs in Model Mode]]
 
The <b>Extrude</b>, <b>Sweep</b>, and <b>Loft</b> tools are used to give direction and depth to the 3D model. <b>Extrude</b> projects the initial sketch outward to create a model. The <b>Sweep</b> tool creates a 3D model of a predetermined surface (profile) along a specific path. The <b>Loft</b> tool creates a 3D extrusion to connect two profiles of any shape (Figure 5). The <b>Sweep</b> and <b>Loft</b> tools are particularly useful for creating extrusions at an angle.
 
[[File:fusion_tools.png|600px|thumb|center|Figure 5: Examples of Extrude (Left), Sweep (Middle), and Loft (Right)]]
 
The [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1WrshWCKfwgSBfrfj9H_x9z8HbmMNWOiE/view Loft/Sweep Tutorial video]  demonstrates how to use these tools. Table 1 shows common Fusion 360 shortcuts.


<center>
<center>
{| class="wikitable"
{| class="wikitable"
|+ Table 1: Common Fusion 360 Shortcut
|+ Table 1: Common Shortcuts in Autodesk Fusion 360
!Command!!Windows Key Combination!! Mac Key Combination
!Command!!Windows Key Combination!! Mac Key Combination
|-
|-
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|}</center>
|}</center>


== 3D Printing ==
The <b>Simulation</b> workspace can run simulations to test how a part will perform under real world conditions. A <b>Static Stress</b> simulation, for example, analyzes the deformation, stress, and safety factor in a model from structural loads and constraints. These assumptions are based on a linear response to stress when the load being applied is known and constant. The results determine if a design will deform excessively or fail (break) from the loads applied. To run the tests, loads and constraints are placed on the model.
3D printing allows rapid prototyping and onsite manufacturing of products. Initially done with plastic, 3D printing now uses new techniques with new materials, such as aluminum, bronze, and glass. Biomaterials are also being used, such as 3D printing ear cartilage and liver tissue. As the 3D printing industry grows, 3D printing has become a significant part of many engineering fields.
 
In this course, 3D printing can be used to produce prototype components, building models, SLDP course modifications, robot parts, and a company logo.
 
== Fusion 360 ==
<b>Autodesk Fusion 360</b> is a cloud-based software that uses remote servers hosted via the internet to process, store, and compute data. This computer aided design (CAD) tool creates precisely scaled drawings. These drawings are turned into 3D models that are used to visualize designs through photorealistic renderings and to simulate how a design performs under real world conditions. Fusion 360 can also be used for designing in computer aided manufacturing (CAM), computer aided engineering (CAE), animation, and more.
 
The two workspaces in Fusion 360 that will be used in this experiment are <b>Design</b> and <b>Simulation</b> (Figure 1). The Design workspace is used for creating mechanical designs that contain information about geometric constraints, and the Simulation workspace is used for applying loads to the design to observe the possibility of deformation or failure.
 
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 1.PNG|136px|thumb|center|Figure 1: Fusion 360 Workspaces]]
 
The <b>Create</b> and <b>Modify</b> tabs in the <b>Design</b> workspace contain the functions needed for sketching and building a 3D model. They allow for creating and modifying sketches when in sketch mode (Figure 2).
 
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 2.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 2: Create and Modify Tabs in Sketch Mode]]
 
A <b>Sketch</b> creates the 2D shapes that are the bases for all 3D models. When first sketching the shapes, they do not have to have accurate dimensions or scale. Using the Sketch Dimension tool and the Constraints functions, the base shape and 3D model can be edited without starting over (Figure 3).
 
[[File: Lab 1 Figure 3.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 3: Before (Left) and After (Right) of Sketch Using the Sketch Dimension Tool]]


Once a sketch is complete, the Create and Modify tabs are also used to generate the 3D model (Figure 4).
'''Constraints''' consist of fixed, pinned, and frictionless support options that prevent motion in specific directions. Fixed constraints prevent all motion and displacement of a part (Figure 6). This would mimic a screw holding a part in place. A pinned support prevents movement in radial, axial, and/or tangential directions, but allows a part to rotate. Frictionless constraints prevent movement normal to the surface. This mimics a wall or floor to prevent motion perpendicular to the surface.
 
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 4.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 4: Create and Modify Tabs in Model Mode]]
 
The <b>Extrude, Sweep,</b> and <b>Loft</b> tools are used to give direction and depth to the 3D model. <b>Extrude</b> projects the initial sketch outward to create a model. The <b>Sweep</b> tool creates a 3D model of a predetermined surface (profile) along a specific path. The <b>Loft</b> tool creates a 3D extrusion to connect two profiles of any shape (Figure 5). The Sweep and Loft tools are particularly useful for creating extrusions at an angle. The [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1WrshWCKfwgSBfrfj9H_x9z8HbmMNWOiE/view Loft/Sweep Tutorial video]  demonstrates how to use these tools.
 
[[File:fusion_tools.png|600px|thumb|center|Figure 5: Examples of Extrude (Left), Sweep (Middle), and Loft (Right)]]
 
The <b>Simulation workspace</b> can run simulations to test how a part will perform under real world conditions. A <b>Static Stress</b> simulation, for example, analyzes the deformation, stress, and safety factor in a model from structural loads and constraints. These assumptions are based on a linear response to stress when the load being applied is known and constant. The results determine if a design will deform excessively or fail (break) from the loads applied. To run the tests, conditions are placed on the model.
 
<b>Constraints</b> consist of fixed, pinned, and frictionless support options that prevent motion in specific directions. Fixed constraints prevent all motion and displacement of a part (Figure 6). This would mimic a screw holding a part in place. A pinned support prevents movement in radial, axial, and/or tangential directions, but allows a part to rotate. Frictionless constraints prevent movement normal to the surface. This mimics a wall or floor to prevent motion perpendicular to the surface.


[[File:Lab 4 Figure 6.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 6: Example of Fixed Constraints]]
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 6.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 6: Example of Fixed Constraints]]


A <b>Load</b> is the force being applied to the model (Figure 7). The force is characterized by the direction, the point of application, and the magnitude of the force being applied.
A '''Load''' is the force being applied to the model (Figure 7). The force is characterized by the direction, the point of application, and the magnitude of the force being applied.


[[File:Lab 4 Figure 8.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 7: Example of Loads]]
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 8.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 7: Example of Loads]]


A <b>Mesh</b> is a boundary along the model made up of polygons that determine the precision of the analysis test (Figure 8). At every vertex, the analysis is run and results are provided. The more polygons that are generated in the mesh, the more precise the results will be, but the longer it will take to run the simulation and produce the results. Always generate a new mesh when a part is altered.
A <b>Mesh</b> is a boundary along the model made up of polygons that determine the precision of the analysis test (Figure 8). At every vertex, the analysis is run, and results are provided. The more polygons that are generated in the mesh, the more precise the results will be, but the longer it will take to run the simulation and produce the results. Always generate a new mesh when a part is altered.


[[File:Lab 4 Figure 7.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 8: Example of a Mesh]]
[[File:Lab 4 Figure 7.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 8: Example of a Mesh]]


The <b>safety factor</b> is the ratio of how much stronger a system is than the expected load. It is the measure of the load an object can sustain before permanent deformation or fracture. A common, acceptable safety factor is at least three, and any value below that is unacceptable and will likely lead to structural failure.
'''Safety factor''' is the ratio of how much stronger a material is than the expected load. It is the measure of the load a material can sustain before permanent deformation or fracture. A common, acceptable safety factor is at least 3, and any value below that is unacceptable and will likely lead to structural failure.
 
The physical properties of certain materials dictate how they behave under applied loads. As introduced in the Boom Construction Competition lab, the Young’s modulus, or <b>modulus of elasticity</b>, of a material is the measure of stiffness of an object. It is described as the tendency of an object to deform axially when a force is applied in the axial direction. The <b>yield strength</b> of a material is the point at which the material begins to plastically deform and the shape of the object is permanently altered. The <b>ultimate tensile strength (UTS)</b> of a material is the maximum stress that the material can withstand before structurally failing,  which usually involves bending permanently or breaking.
 
= Materials and Equipment =
* A lab PC
* Fusion 360
* Revit
 
= Procedure =
 
== Part 1. Setting up the File ==
# Launch AutoDesk Fusion 360, click Create Account, and fill in the information. <b>Important: Make sure to use an NYU email </b> (Figure 1).
 
[[Image:Lab 1B.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 1: Fusion 360 New File Options]]
 
== 2. Designing the NYU Keychain ==
# First, ensure that the units of your drawing are in inches. They are in the Browser on the left side of the window under Document Settings.
# Start a 2D Sketch by clicking Create Sketch (Figure 2). [[Image:Lab 1B2 V2.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 2: Sketch Mode]]
# Select the XZ plane (Figure 3). [[Image:Lab 1B3.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 3: XZ Plane]]
# Select the 2-Point Rectangle from the Sketch section of the toolbar (Figure 4). [[Image:Lab 1B4 V2.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 4: 2-Point Rectangle]]
# Draw a 2.6” &times; 0.7” rectangle <b>starting at the origin.</b> Click once at the origin to place one point of the rectangle and click one more time to place the second point of the rectangle. The length values can be typed in before placing the second point of the rectangle (switching which value is changed is done using the Tab key).
# Select the Center Diameter Circle from the Sketch section of the toolbar.
# Draw a 0.7” diameter circle centered in the middle of one of the 0.7" sides of the rectangle (the cursor should become a blue X with a triangle and snap to the midpoint of the line when you get close) (Figure 5). Similar to the 2-Point Rectangle, the diameter of the circle can be typed. [[Image:Lab 1B5.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 5: Center Diameter Circle]]
# Draw another circle 0.45” in diameter in the same position. The sketch should look like Figure 6.[[Image:Lab 1B6.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 6: Circles of Keychain Base]]
# Fillet (round) the corners of the base. Select the Fillet tool from the Modify section of the toolbar (Figure 7). [[Image:Lab 1B7.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 7: Fillet Tool]]
# Select one of the two intersecting lines that form the right angles on the base. Set the fillet radius to 0.125" and repeat on the other corner. The sketch should look like Figure 8. [[Image:Lab 1B8.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 8: Filleted Corners]]
# Remove the extra lines using the trim tool. Select the trim tool from the Modify section of the toolbar. [[Image: Trim Tool.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 9: Trim Tool]]
# Select all interior lines that divide the keychain to trim them. If error messages are indicated, remove the dimensions on the rest of the keychain by clicking on them and pressing the Delete key. The sketch should look like Figure 10. [[Image:Lab 1B9.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 10: Keychain Base]]
# Exit the sketch using the Finish Sketch button in the top right of the window.
# After creating a 2D sketch, the next step is to use that sketch to create a 3D object. The Extrude tool will be used to create a 3D block. In the future, the Revolve or other tools can be used to create more advanced geometry. Select the Extrude tool from the Create section of the toolbar (Figure 11).</li>[[Image:Lab 1B10 V2.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 11: Extrude Tool]]
# The Extrude information dialog will pop-up on the right side of the window. First, select the profile of the object to be extruded, which is the sketch that was just created. The sketch will highlight blue if it was made correctly. Click and change the extrusion thickness to 0.15" and press the Enter key. Click OK in the Extrude information dialog. The model will look like Figure 12. [[Image:Lab 1B11.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 12: Extruded Sketch]]
# The next step is to add the design to the keychain. A vector graphics file will be used in the DXF format provided by NYU. In the future, a logo can be designed using the sketch tool. Download the [[Media:Tandon_long_white.zip|Tandon Logo DXF File]] (this logo was converted from the file provided on NYU's identity page).
# The downloaded ZIP folder must first be extracted. Then, select Insert DXF under the Insert section of the toolbar (Figure 13). [[Image:Lab 1B12.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 13: Insert DXF Tool]]
# The Insert DXF information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. For the Plane/Sketch, select the top surface of the keychain (Figure 14). [[Image:Lab 1B13.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 14: Selected Top Surface]]
# Click the folder icon next to Select DXF file to upload the Tandon Logo DXF File. The logo should appear (Figure 15). [[Image:Lab 1B14.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 15: Imported DXF Logo]]
# Change the units to inches and click OK.
# The vertical bar and Tandon School of Engineering portions of the logo are not needed. Select the bar and text to the right by clicking and dragging (Figure 16).[[Image:Lab 1B15.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 16: Tandon to Delete]]
# Delete this portion with the Delete key on the keyboard (not Backspace).
# The logo needs to be scaled to fit the keychain. A base point must be selected for which the sketch will be scaled to. The midpoint of the line on the right side of the box around the torch will be used as the base point, so a point must be placed there first.
# To place a point, the sketch must be in editing mode. A sketch is known to be in editing mode when the background turns into gridlines and Finish Sketch appears at the top right of the window. Enter the tandon_long_white sketch by double clicking on the sketch name in the Browser. [[Image:Browser.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 17: Sketches in Browser]]
# Select the Point tool under the Create section of the toolbar. Place a point at the midpoint of the right side of the box around the torch (Figure 18). [[Image:Lab 1B17.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 18: Midpoint on Box]]
<!--# Delete the bottom and the left side of the box around the torch. (Figure 19)[[Image:Lab 1B18 V2.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 19: Partly Deleted Box]]-->
# Select the Sketch Scale tool from the Modify section of the toolbar. The Sketch Scale information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. For the Entities, select the remaining lines of the box and torch of the logo by clicking and dragging. <b> Make sure to not select the midpoint that was just placed on the right side of the box </b>.
## If the midpoint was selected, clicking on the point again will unselect it
# Select the midpoint that was just placed as the Point for scaling.
# Enter a scaling factor of 0.75 and click OK. (Figure 19) [[Image:Lab1.B.20.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 19: Scaled Box]]
<!--# Redraw the two sides of the box that were deleted using the Line tool in the Create section of the toolbar (Figure 21). [[Image:Lab 1B20.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 21: Redrawn Box]]-->
# The logo must now be positioned on the keychain. This will be done by drawing a line for alignment and moving the logo design to where the alignment line is located. Select the line tool and draw a 0.925" horizontal line from a point close to the center of the hole in the keychain base to the right (Figure 20). [[Image:Lab 1B21.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 20: Alignment Line]]
# Select the entire logo by clicking and dragging. Then select Move/Copy under the Modify section of the toolbar.
# The Move/Copy information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. The Selection should already be made (the NYU logo). Select Point to Point as the Move Type. For the Origin Point, select the midpoint from the side of the box around the torch. For the Target Point, select the right end of the alignment line that was previously drawn (Figure 21). Click OK. [[Image:Lab 1B22.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 21: Move/Copy Tool]]
# Delete the alignment line that was previously drawn.
# Click Finish Sketch in the top right of the window to exit the sketch. The final sketch is shown in Figure 23. [[Image:Lab 1B23.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 23: Final Sketch]]
# To finish this side of the keychain, the design must be cut into the base. To do this, the Extrude tool will be used.
# To cut the design, select Extrude from the Create section of the toolbar. The Extrude information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. Select the Profile of the design to cut, which is the area around the torch and each of the letters (Figure 24). [[Image:Lab 1B24.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 24: Selected Cut Profile]]
# For the Operation, select Cut. Set the Distance to -0.06" (Figure 25). Click OK.[[Image:Lab 1B25.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 25: Cut Tool]]
# The final model is shown in Figure 26. [[Image:Lab 1B26.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 26: Final Model]]
 
== Part 3. Prepare for Printing ==
Now that the logo design is complete, the next step is to prepare the design in the 3D printer slicing software. Cura will be used for orienting parts on the printer buildplate and selecting the color of each object. It also generates a code for the toolpath that the printer will read and follow to print the objects.  


# Open Cura. If a menu pops up prompting for the printer, select the Ultimaker 3. If a menu does not pop up, make sure the printer currently selected is Ultimaker 3 at the top left corner.
The physical properties of certain materials dictate how they behave under applied loads. The '''Young’s modulus''', or modulus of elasticity, of a material is the measure of the stiffness of that material. It is described as the tendency of a material to deform axially when a force is applied in the axial direction. The '''yield strength''' of a material is the point at which the material begins to deform plastically, and the shape of the material is permanently altered. The '''ultimate tensile strength''' (UTS) of a material is the maximum stress that the material can withstand before structurally failing, which usually involves bending permanently or breaking (Table 2).
# To load the two files from above, select File > Open File(s) at the top left of the window and open the STL files containing the base of the keychain and the keychain insert (Figure 32).
# In Cura, right click and drag to pan around, middle click and drag to move your frame of view, and scroll up and down to zoom in and out. [[Image:Lab1B30V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 32: STL Files Loaded in Cura]]
# Select the keychain base and click the Rotate tool from the toolbar on the left side of the window. Use the red, blue, and green hoops to rotate the base so that the logo design is facing upward (Figure 33). Do the same for the keychain filler. Uncheck the Snap Rotation option for more precise rotation. [[Image:Lab1B31V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 33: Rotate Hoops]]
<!--# By default, Cura does not allow objects to overlap. However, this must be done to place the insert inside the keychain base. To change this default setting, go to Preferences and select Configure Cura.
# Under Viewport behavior in the General tab, make sure to deselect both “Ensure models are kept apart” and “Automatically drop models to the build plate” if they are not already deselected (Figure 34). Click Close. [[Image:Lab1B32.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 34: Cura Preferences]]-->
# Make sure both objects are lying flat on the build plate by using Rotate > Lay Flat. If the Lay Flat tool does not lay the object flat, go to the Move tool and type in 0 mm for the Z value (Figure 34). [[Image:Lab1B33V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 34: Move Tool]]
# Select the rectangle insert, and using the Move tool on the left, enter 0.15 mm as the Z value to raise it vertically. If the insert does not move, go to Preferences >> Configure Cura and ensure the setting "automatically drop down to the build plate" is unchecked.
# Select the keychain insert and set it under Extruder 2 in the toolbar on the left (Figure 35). That piece will appear as slightly darker yellow. The insert must be set under a different extruder because it will be printed in a different color than the keychain base. [[Image:Lab1B34V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 35: Changing Extruders]]
# Having the keychain insert selected, select the Move tool on the left-hand toolbar. Using the red and green arrows, drag the insert piece and align it in the keychain base (Figure 36). Make sure not to move the insert piece in the Z direction as this was previously set in Step 8. [[Image:Lab1B35V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 36: Final Cura Setup]]
# Click Slice, then click Save to File in the bottom right of the window. Save the file as a GCODE file. Upload it to the EG1003 website.


== 1. Fusion 360 ==
=== Competition ===
* This portion of the lab is a competition to redesign the same part to obtain the highest competition ratio (1)
* The redesigned part must have a safety factor of at least 3
* The redesigned part must not have more than double the volume of the original part
* The applied forces and fixed constraints cannot be altered
* The thickness of the base and the proportions of the original part cannot be altered. The supports can be altered if and only if they do not take away or add from the base of the model
* The winning design will receive extra credit towards the lab report grade for this lab
* Only the materials in Table 1 may be used when modifying the part
::{| class="wikitable"
::{| class="wikitable"
|+Table 1: Allowed Materials and their Properties
|+Table 2: Allowed Materials and their Properties
|-
|-
!'''Material'''
!'''Material'''
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|}
|}


* The competition will be decided by a ratio (1) that uses the part’s safety factor and volume (make sure to give the Lab TA the volume in mm<sup>3</sup>)
= Materials and Equipment =
* A lab PC
* Fusion 360
 
= Procedure =
 
== Part 1. Setting up the File ==
# Launch AutoDesk Fusion 360, click '''Create Account''', and fill in the information. Important: Make sure to use an NYU email (Figure 9).
 
[[Image:Lab 1B.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 9: Fusion 360 New File Options]]
 
== 2. Designing the NYU Keychain ==
# Make the units of the drawing  inches. They are in the '''Browser''' on the left side of the window under '''Document Settings'''.
# Start a 2D Sketch by clicking '''Create Sketch''' (Figure 10). [[Image:Lab 1B2 V2.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 10: Sketch Mode]]
# Select the XZ plane (Figure 11). [[Image:Lab 1B3.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 11: XZ Plane]]
# Select the '''2-Point Rectangle''' from the '''Sketch''' section of the toolbar (Figure 12). [[Image:Lab 1B4 V2.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 12: 2-Point Rectangle]]
# Draw a 2.6 in &times; 0.7 in rectangle starting at the origin. Click once at the origin to place one point of the rectangle and click one more time to place the second point of the rectangle. The length values can be typed in before placing the second point of the rectangle (switching which value is changed is done using the Tab key).
# Select the '''Center Diameter Circle''' from the '''Sketch''' section of the toolbar.
# Draw a 0.7 in diameter circle centered in the middle of one of the 0.7 in sides of the rectangle (the cursor should become a blue X with a triangle and snap to the midpoint of the line) (Figure 13). Like the 2-Point Rectangle, the diameter of the circle can be user-defined.[[Image:Lab 1B5.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 13: Center Diameter Circle]]
# Draw another circle 0.45 in diameter in the same position. The sketch should look like Figure 14.[[Image:Lab 1B6.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 14: Circles of Keychain Base]]
# Fillet (round) the corners of the base. Select the '''Fillet''' tool from the '''Modify''' section of the toolbar (Figure 15). [[Image:Lab 1B7.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 15: Fillet Tool]]
# Select one of the two intersecting lines that form the right angles on the base. Set the fillet radius to 0.125 in and repeat on the other corner. The sketch should look like Figure 16. [[Image:Lab 1B8.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 16: Filleted Corners]]
# Remove the extra lines using the trim tool. Select the '''Trim''' tool from the '''Modify''' section of the toolbar. [[Image: Trim Tool.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 17: Trim Tool]]
# Select all interior lines that divide the keychain to trim them. If error messages are indicated, remove the dimensions on the rest of the keychain by clicking on them and pressing the '''Delete''' key. The sketch should look like Figure 18. [[Image:Lab 1B9.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 18: Keychain Base]]
# Exit the sketch using the '''Finish Sketch''' button in the top right of the window.
# After creating a 2D sketch, the next step is to use that sketch to create a 3D object. The '''Extrude''' tool will be used to create a 3D block. In the future, the '''Revolve''' or other tools can be used to create more advanced geometry. Select the '''Extrude''' tool from the '''Create''' section of the toolbar (Figure 19).</li>[[Image:Lab 1B10 V2.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 19: Extrude Tool]]
# The '''Extrude''' information dialog will pop-up on the right side of the window. Select the profile of the object to be extruded, which is the sketch that was just created. The sketch will highlight blue if it was made correctly. Click and change the '''Distance''' to 0.15 in and press the '''Enter''' key. Click '''OK''' in the '''Extrude''' information dialog. The model will look like the one shown in Figure 20. [[Image:Lab 1B11.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 20: Extruded Sketch]]
# The next step is to add the design to the keychain. A vector graphics file will be used in the DXF format provided by NYU. In the future, a logo can be designed using the '''Sketch''' tool. Download the [[Media:Tandon_long_white.zip|Tandon Logo DXF File]] (this logo was converted from the file provided on NYU's identity page).
# The downloaded ZIP folder must first be extracted. Then, select '''Insert DXF''' under the '''Insert''' section of the toolbar (Figure 21). [[Image:Lab 1B12.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 21: Insert DXF Tool]]
# The '''Insert DXF''' information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. For the '''Plane/Sketch''', select the top surface of the keychain (Figure 22). [[Image:Lab 1B13.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 22: Selected Top Surface]]
# Click the folder icon next to the '''Select DXF''' file to upload the Tandon Logo DXF File. The logo should appear (Figure 23). [[Image:Lab 1B14.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 23: Imported DXF Logo]]
# Change the units to inches and click '''OK'''.
# The vertical bar and Tandon School of Engineering portions of the logo are not needed. Select the bar and text to the right by clicking and dragging (Figure 24). Delete this portion with the '''Delete''' key on the keyboard (not '''Backspace''').[[Image:Lab 1B15.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 24: Tandon to Delete]]
# The logo needs to be scaled to fit the keychain. A base point must be selected for which the sketch will be scaled to. The midpoint of the line on the right side of the box around the torch will be used as the base point, so a point must be placed there first.
# Before placing a point, the sketch must be in editing mode. A sketch is in editing mode when the background turns into gridlines, and '''Finish Sketch''' appears at the top right of the window. Edit the logo by selecting '''Browser → Sketches''' and double-clicking on tandon_long_white sketch (Figure 25). [[Image:Browser.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 25: Sketches in Browser]]
# Select the '''Create → Point''' tool. Place a point at the midpoint of the right side of the box around the torch (Figure 26). This is the base point. [[Image:Lab 1B17.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 26: Midpoint on Box]]
# Select the '''Modify → Sketch Scale''' tool. The '''Sketch Scale''' information dialog will appear on the righthand side of the window. For the '''Entities''', circle the remaining lines of the box and torch of the logo by clicking and dragging. Do not select the base point in Step 24. If the midpoint was selected, clicking on the point again will unselect it.
# In the Sketch Scale window, a third option will appear as Scale Factor. Enter a scaling factor of 0.75 and click '''OK''' (Figure 27).[[Image:Lab1.B.20.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 27: Scaled Box]]
# The logo must now be positioned on the keychain. This will be done by drawing a line for alignment and moving the logo design to where the alignment line is located. Select the '''Sketch → Line''' tool and draw a 0.925 in horizontal line from a point close to the center of the hole in the keychain base to the right (Figure 28).[[Image:Lab 1B21.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 20: Alignment Line]]
# Select the entire logo by clicking and dragging. Then select '''Modify → Move/Copy''' on the toolbar.
# The '''Move/Copy''' information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. The selection should already be made (the NYU logo). Select '''Point to Point''' as the '''Move Type'''. For the '''Origin Point''', select the midpoint from the side of the box around the torch. For the '''Target Point''', select the right end of the alignment line that was previously drawn (Figure 29). Click '''OK'''. [[Image:Lab 1B22.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 29: Move/Copy Tool]]
# Delete the alignment line that was drawn in Step 27.
# Click '''Finish Sketch''' in the top right of the window to exit the sketch. The final sketch is shown in Figure 30. [[Image:Lab 1B23.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 30: Final Sketch]]
# To finish this side of the keychain, the design must be cut into the base. To do this, the '''Extrude''' tool will be used.
# To cut the design, select '''Create → Extrude''' on the toolbar. The '''Extrude''' information dialog will appear on the righthand side of the window. Select the design profile to cut, which is the area around the torch and each of the letters (Figure 31). [[Image:Lab 1B24.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 31: Selected Cut Profile]]
# In the '''Extrude''' window, scroll down to '''Operation''', and select '''Cut'''. Set the '''Distance''' to -0.06 in  (Figure 32). Click '''OK'''.[[Image:Lab 1B25.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 32: Engrave the Tandon Logo]]
# The final model is shown in Figure 33. [[Image:Lab 1B26.jpg|thumb|center|600px|Figure 33: Final Model]]
 
== Part 3. Fusion 360 Competition ==
=== Competition Rules ===
*This portion of the lab is a competition to redesign a part and obtain the highest competition ratio
*The redesigned part must have a safety factor of at least 3
*The redesigned part must not have more than double the volume of the original part
*The applied forces and fixed constraints cannot be altered
*The thickness of the base and the proportions of the original part cannot be altered. *The supports can be altered if and only if they do not take away from or add to the *base of the part
*The winning design will receive extra credit towards the lab report grade for this lab
*Only aluminum, steel, copper, or lead may be used when modifying the part
 
 
* Equation (1) will be used in the competition. (Please note the volume should be measured in mm<sup>3</sup>)


<center><math>Competition\ Ratio = [\frac{Final\ Safety\ Factor}{Final\ Volume} -\ \frac{Initial\ Safety\ Factor}{Initial\ Volume}] \times 10^4\,</math></center>
<center><math>Competition\ Ratio = [\frac{Final\ Safety\ Factor}{Final\ Volume} -\ \frac{Initial\ Safety\ Factor}{Initial\ Volume}] \times 10^4\,</math></center>
Line 203: Line 185:
* Do not simply add a long or large block to the redesigned part
* Do not simply add a long or large block to the redesigned part
* Consider bridges, cranes, and other systems that use structural support in the redesign
* Consider bridges, cranes, and other systems that use structural support in the redesign
* Consider which material will increase the safety factor (Table 1)
* Consider which material will increase the safety factor  
* Using the contents from the Boom Construction Competition lab, how can the part be modified to support higher loads?
* How can the part be modified to support higher loads?


=== Parts ===
=== Parts Selection ===


Click on the image of the part to download the Fusion 360 file for that part. Figures 9 through 16 show in <span style="color:red">'''red'''</span> what <b>cannot</b> be modified in each part. The red areas cannot be cut, made longer, or thicker. Components can be added, such as fillets, chamfers, or other extrusions, including lofts and sweeps.
Click on the image of the part to download the Fusion 360 file for that part. Figures 34 through 41 show the components that cannot be modified in <span style="color:red">'''red'''</span>. The red areas cannot be cut, made longer, or thicker. Components, such as fillets, chamfers, or other extrusions, including lofts and sweeps, can be added.


[[Image:Crane Truss Case.png|link={{filepath:CraneTrussCase.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:CraneTrussCase.zip|Figure 9: Crane Truss Case (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Crane Truss Case.png|link={{filepath:CraneTrussCase.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:CraneTrussCase.zip|Figure 34: Crane Truss Case (Click to Download)]]]]


[[Image:Weight Bearing Latch.png|link={{filepath:WeightBearingLatch.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:WeightBearingLatch.zip|Figure 10: Weight Bearing Latch (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Weight Bearing Latch.png|link={{filepath:WeightBearingLatch.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:WeightBearingLatch.zip|Figure 35: Weight Bearing Latch (Click to Download)]]]]


[[Image:Wire Supported Shelf.png|link={{filepath:WireSupportedShelf.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:WireSupportedShelf.zip|Figure 11: Wire Supported Shelf (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Wire Supported Shelf.png|link={{filepath:WireSupportedShelf.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:WireSupportedShelf.zip|Figure 36: Wire Supported Shelf (Click to Download)]]]]


[[Image:Pipe-Like Placeholder.png|link={{filepath:PipeLikePlaceholder.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:PipeLikePlaceholder.zip|Figure 12: Pipe-Like Placeholder (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Pipe-Like Placeholder.png|link={{filepath:PipeLikePlaceholder.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:PipeLikePlaceholder.zip|Figure 37: Pipe-Like Placeholder (Click to Download)]]]]


[[Image:Truss Pyramid.png|link={{filepath:TrussPyramid.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:TrussPyramid.zip|Figure 13: Truss Pyramid (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Truss Pyramid.png|link={{filepath:TrussPyramid.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:TrussPyramid.zip|Figure 38: Truss Pyramid (Click to Download)]]]]


[[Image:Broken Truss Tower.png|link={{filepath:BrokenTrussTower.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:BrokenTrussTower.zip|Figure 14: Broken Truss Tower (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Broken Truss Tower.png|link={{filepath:BrokenTrussTower.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:BrokenTrussTower.zip|Figure 39: Broken Truss Tower (Click to Download)]]]]


[[Image:Screwed Bracket.png|link={{filepath:ScrewedBracket.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:ScrewedBracket.zip|Figure 15: Screwed Bracket (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Screwed Bracket.png|link={{filepath:ScrewedBracket.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:ScrewedBracket.zip|Figure 40: Screwed Bracket (Click to Download)]]]]


[[Image:Poorly Constructed Bridge.png|link={{filepath:PoorlyConstructedBridge.zip}}|600px|thumb|center||[[Media:PoorlyConstructedBridge.zip|Figure 16: Poorly Constructed Bridge (Click to Download)]]]]
[[Image:Poorly Constructed Bridge.png|link={{filepath:PoorlyConstructedBridge.zip}}|400px|thumb|center||[[Media:PoorlyConstructedBridge.zip|Figure 41: Poorly Constructed Bridge (Click to Download)]]]]


=== Procedure ===
=== Procedure ===


# Download the part to be modified as determined by the Lab TA. Extract the ZIP folder that was downloaded to obtain the F3D file.
# Download the part to be modified as determined by the Lab TA. Extract the ZIP folder that was downloaded to obtain the F3D file.
# Open Fusion 360. Go to File > Open and select the downloaded part. Select the Design workspace in the top left of the window. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 17.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 17: Workspace Options]]
# Open Fusion 360. Go to '''File Open''' and select the downloaded part. Select the '''Design''' workspace in the top left of the window. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 17.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 42: Workspace Options]]
# Open the Bodies in the Browser on the left side of the window, right click on the body of interest, and click Properties (Figure 18). [[File:Lab 4 Figure 18.PNG|185px|thumb|center|Figure 18: Properties of a Body]]
# Open the '''Bodies''' in the '''Browser''' on the lefthand side of the window, right click on the body of interest, and click '''Properties''' (Figure 43). [[File:Lab 4 Figure 18.PNG|185px|thumb|center|Figure 43: Properties of a Body]]
# From the Properties dialog, record the volume of the body in mm<sup>3</sup>.
# From the '''Properties''' dialog, record the volume of the body in mm<sup>3</sup>.
# Click the workspace drop-down menu at the top left of the window and change the workspace to Simulation.
# Click the workspace drop-down menu at the top left of the window and change the workspace to '''Simulation'''.
# Open the Static Stress study in the Browser, and open the Study Materials tab (Figure 19). Record the material being used. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 19.PNG|204px|thumb|center|Figure 19: Study Material]]
# Open the '''Static Stress''' study in the '''Browser''', and open the '''Study Materials''' tab (Figure 44). Record the material being used. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 19.PNG|204px|thumb|center|Figure 44: Study Material]]
# Determine the location the load is being applied (Figure 20). Double click the blue force arrow and record the magnitude of the force in Newtons. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 20.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 20: Applied Loads]]
# Determine the location the load is being applied (Figure 45). Double click the blue force arrow and record the magnitude of the force in Newtons. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 20.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 45: Applied Loads]]
# In the Browser, right click Mesh then select Generate Mesh (Figure 21). If the mesh is already generated and an error occurs, select OK. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 21.PNG|211px|thumb|center|Figure 21: Generate Mesh]]
# In the '''Browser''', select '''Mesh Generate Mesh''' (Figure 46). If the mesh is already generated and an error occurs, select '''OK'''. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 21.PNG|211px|thumb|center|Figure 46: Generate Mesh]]
# In the Browser, right click Results and select Solve. Follow the Solve dialog until the simulation status is complete. Click Close and the results should look like Figure 22. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 22.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 22: Results of the Simulation]]
# In the '''Browser''', right click '''Results''' and select '''Solve'''. Follow the '''Solve''' dialog until the simulation is complete. Click '''Close''' and the results should look like Figure 47. [[File:Lab 4 Figure 22.PNG|600px|thumb|center|Figure 47: Results of the Simulation]]
# Record the minimum safety factor that occurs in the design.
# Record the safety factor for the design.
# Sketch a possible solution to add structural stability to the broken part that would add extra support against the force being applied, remembering what cannot be modified. Recall that the modified design should aim to generate a minimum safety factor of 3. Have the sketch approved by a TA.
# Sketch a possible solution to the part that would add extra support against the force being applied, remembering what cannot be modified. Recall that the modified design must have a safety factor of at least 3. Have the sketch approved by a TA.
# Go back to the Design workspace in Fusion 360 and use the tools shown to add  support to the original part (i.e. Extrude and Sweep).
# Go back to the '''Design''' workspace in Fusion 360 and use the tools shown to add  support to the original part (i.e. '''Extrude''' and '''Sweep''').
# Once the part has been modified, go back to the Simulation workspace.
# Once the part has been modified, go back to the '''Simulation''' workspace.
# Change the material of the part if needed by right clicking on the current Study Material in the Browser, as it can increase the safety factor[[File:Lab_Study_Materials_CAD.png|600px|thumb|center|Figure 23: Study Materials]]
# Change the material of the part, as it can increase the safety factor by right clicking on '''Study Materials''' in the '''Browser''' tab.[[File:Lab_Study_Materials_CAD.png|600px|thumb|center|Figure 48: Study Materials]]
# Click on the lead study material to open the drop down menu and change it to one of the given metals (Aluminum, Steel, Copper, Lead)[[File:Lab_Changing_Study_Materials_CAD.png|600px|thumb|center|Figure 24: Changing the Study Materials]]
# Click on the '''Study Materials''' to open the drop down menu and change it to one of the four metals (Aluminum, steel, copper, lead.[[File:Lab_Changing_Study_Materials_CAD.png|600px|thumb|center|Figure 49: Changing the Study Materials]]
# Run the analysis again with the modified part. Right click Mesh and select Generate Mesh in the Browser.
# Run the analysis again with the modified part by selecting '''Mesh Generate Mesh''' in the Browser.
# Solve the Results and observe the minimum safety factor of the modified design. The model may become bent as the results are exaggerated in the simulation to gain a better understanding of how the part moves with an applied load.
# Solve the results and observe the safety factor of the modified design. The model may become bent as the results are exaggerated in the simulation to gain a better understanding of how the part moves with an applied load.
# If the new part does not have a factor of safety of at least 3, add additional supports and/or change the material of the part and run the simulation again.
# If the safety factor of the modified parts is less than 3, add additional supports and/or change the material of the part and run the simulation again.
# Once the required safety factor has been achieved, record the minimum safety factor and volume of the modified part. Give the values of the minimum safety factor and volume of the unmodified and modified parts to the TA to calculate the competition ratio and see the design’s standing in the competition.
# Once the required safety factor has been achieved, record the safety factor and volume of the modified part. Give the values of the safety factor and volume of the modified part to the TA to calculate the competition ranking.


= Assignment =
= Assignment =
Line 252: Line 234:
== Individual Lab Report ==
== Individual Lab Report ==


{{Labs:Lab Report}}
{{Labs:Lab Report}} Please only discuss the Fusion 360 competition portion in the lab report. The NYU logo keychain procedure does not need to be discussed.
 
*Abstract
**Briefly summarize the lab exercise. Include the competition results
*Introduction
**Discuss the uses and advantages and disadvantages of CAD software
**Discuss Fusion 360
***Workspaces
***Tools and other components used in the lab exercise
**Discuss the competition
***Present and discuss ratio in Equation Editor
***Discuss rules
***Discuss available materials
***Discuss design strategy and impact of rules, materials, and ratio on design strategy
*Procedure
**Materials
**For the competition, describe what was done in sufficient detail so that another person could follow the description and replicate the results. Reference tools and workspaces used
*Data/Observations
**Present and discuss first Fusion 360 simulation. Include simulation and all data
**Present and discuss all additional simulations. Include simulations and all data
**Present and discuss the Fusion 360 design’s ratio. Include the calculation using **Equation Editor and initial and final safety factor and initial and final volume
**Present and discuss competition results. Include all data and table
*Conclusion
**Analyze competition results
***Discuss role of safety factor, volume, materials in determining competition results 
**Discuss ways to improve the design’s performance in the competition
*Contribution statement   


* Include the results of at least two simulations (before and after modifying the part)
* Define CAD, Fusion 360 & Revit, safety factor, and ultimate tensile strength
* Why is CAD software, such as Revit, Fusion 360, AutoCAD, or SolidWorks, an important tool for engineers?
* Should there be a universal CAD software? What are the pros and cons of this?
* How did having a constrained volume impact the design process?
* How did the final redesign compare with other redesigns, if any? Did the material of the part have an impact on the safety factor and if so, why?
* Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the part design
* How can the electricity used in an apartment be minimized through architectural design?
* What method was used to visualize the apartment?
* Discuss if any of the extra credit tasks were completed in the lab report.
* Discuss what part of the lab each individual member completed for the group and how it was important to the overall experiment.


<!--{{Labs:Lab Notes}}-->
<!--{{Labs:Lab Notes}}-->
Line 272: Line 269:
{{Labs:Team Presentation}}
{{Labs:Team Presentation}}


* Why is CAD software, such as Revit, Fusion 360, AutoCAD, or SolidWorks, an important tool for engineers?
*Why is CAD software, such as Fusion 360, AutoCAD, or SolidWorks, an important tool for engineers?
* Include the four basic CAD drawing views (top, most detailed side, front, and isometric) of the mechanical part before and after modifications (eight drawings total)
*Include the four basic CAD drawing views (top, most detailed side, front, and isometric) of the mechanical part before and after modifications (eight drawings total)
* How can  the electricity used in an apartment be minimized through architectural design?
*How is simulation used in engineering design?
* How is simulation used in engineering design?
*Explain the material selected for the redesign of the part
* Explain the material selected for the redesign of the part
*How did having a constrained volume impact the design process?
* How did having a constrained volume impact the design process?
*Define safety factor
* Define safety factor
*How did the redesign compare with other redesigns?
* How did the redesign compare with other redesigns?  
*Did the material have an impact on the safety factor, and if so, why?
* Did the material have an impact on the safety factor, and if so, why?
 
* Include the 3D rendering and walkthrough video (to receive extra credit)
== Appendix: Preparing the Keychain for Print ==
* Discuss what part of the lab each individual member completed for the group and how it was important to the overall experiment
This appendix entry is not a part of the lab, but  serves as additional information to prepare the design in the 3D printing slicing software. The keychain made in the first exercise is used as a reference in this entry. Cura will be used for orienting parts on the printer build plate and selecting the color of each object. It also generates a code for the toolpath that the printer will read and follow to print the objects.
 
# Open Cura. If a menu pops up prompting for the printer, select the Ultimaker 3. If a menu does not pop up, make sure the printer currently selected is Ultimaker 3 at the top left corner.
# To load the two files from above, select '''File → Open File(s)''' at the top left of the window and open the STL files containing the base of the keychain and the keychain insert (Figure 50).[[Image:Lab1B30V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 50: STL Files Loaded in Cura]]
# In Cura, right click and drag to pan around, middle click and drag to move your frame of view, and scroll up and down to zoom in and out.
# Select the keychain base and click the '''Rotate''' tool from the toolbar on the lefthand side of the window. Use the red, blue, and green hoops to rotate the base so that the logo design is facing upward (Figure 51). Do the same for the keychain filler. Uncheck the '''Snap Rotation''' option for more precise rotation.[[Image:Lab1B31V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 51: Rotate Hoops]]
# Make sure both objects are lying flat on the build plate by using '''Rotate  → Lay Flat'''. If the '''Lay Flat''' tool does not lay the object flat, go to the '''Move''' tool and type in 0 mm for the Z value (Figure  52.[[Image:Lab1B33V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 52: Move Tool]]
# Select the rectangle insert, and using the Move tool on the left, enter 0.15 mm as the Z value to raise it vertically. If the insert does not move, go to Preferences >> Configure Cura and ensure the setting "automatically drop down to the build plate" is unchecked.
# Select the rectangle insert, and using the '''Move''' tool on the left, enter 0.15 mm as the Z value to raise it vertically. If the insert does not move, go to '''Preferences → Configure Cura''' and ensure the setting automatically drop down to the build plate is unchecked.
# Select the keychain insert and set it under '''Extruder 2''' in the toolbar on the left (Figure 53). That piece will appear as slightly darker yellow. The insert must be set under a different extruder because it will be printed in a different color than the keychain base.[[Image:Lab1B34V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 53: Changing Extruders]]
# Having the keychain insert selected, select the '''Move''' tool on the left-hand toolbar. Using the red and green arrows, drag the insert piece and align it in the keychain base (Figure 54). Make sure not to move the insert piece in the Z direction as this was previously set in Step 6.[[Image:Lab1B35V2.png|thumb|center|600px|Figure 54: Final Cura Setup]]
# Click '''Slice''', then click '''Save to File''' in the bottom right of the window. Save the file as a GCODE file.


= References =
= References =


There were no references used.
No references being used in this lab.


{{Laboratory Experiments}}
{{Laboratory Experiments}}

Latest revision as of 16:04, 13 May 2022


Please review the CAD Guide presentation that explains the fundamentals of CAD software prior to performing the lab. The presentation is listed underneath the title Lab 2 on the EG1003 Lab Manual.

Objective

The first experimental objective of this lab is to understand the fundamentals of computer aided design (CAD) software and 3D printing by designing an NYU logo keychain in Autodesk Fusion 360 and preparing it for 3D printing in Cura. The second objective is to modify a poorly-designed part using Autodesk Fusion 360 in a competition. The competition will be ranked by a design ratio that uses the part’s initial and final safety factor and initial and final volume.

Overview

Computer-Aided Design

CAD softwares, which include Autodesk's Fusion 360, AutoCAD, Revit, Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks, and Google SketchUp, allow engineers to make dimensioned, scaled drawings. These drawings are used to manufacture equipment, build infrastructure, and allow designers to display their designs with complete specifications and detail. Orthographic views (top, bottom, side, front, back) can be used to document the technical specifications in drawings needed for production while axonometric views (isometric, dimetric, trimetric) can be used to view the final 3D representation of a product.

This exercise will teach the basics of Autodesk Fusion 360, 3D file formats, 3D printing, and the skills needed to create simple 3D files and prepare them to be 3D printed.

Three-Dimensional Printing (3D Printing)

3D printing allows rapid prototyping and onsite manufacturing of products. Initially done with plastic, 3D printing now uses new techniques with new materials, such as aluminum, bronze, and glass. Biomaterials are also being used, such as 3D printing ear cartilage and liver tissue. As the 3D printing industry grows, 3D printing has become a significant part of many engineering fields.

In this course, 3D printing can be used to produce prototype components, building models, SLDP course modifications, robot parts, and a company logo.

Fusion 360

Autodesk Fusion 360 is a cloud-based software that uses remote servers hosted via the internet to process, store, and compute data. This CAD tool creates precisely scaled drawings. These drawings are turned into 3D models that are used to visualize designs through photorealistic renderings and to simulate how a design performs under applied forces or loads. Fusion 360 can also be used for designing in computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), computer-aided engineering (CAE), animation, and more.

The two workspaces in Fusion 360 that will be used in this experiment are Design and Simulation (Figure 1). The Design workspace creates mechanical designs that contain information about geometric constraints, and the Simulation workspace simulates applied loads on a design to observe the possibility of deformation or failure.

Figure 1: Fusion 360 Workspaces

There are two tabs -- Create and Modify -- in the Design workspace. The Create and Modify tabs contain the functions needed for sketching and building a 3D model. They create and modify sketches when in sketch mode (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Create and Modify Tabs in Sketch Mode

A Sketch creates the 2D shapes that are the bases for all 3D models. When first sketching the shapes, they do not have to have accurate dimensions or scale. Using the Sketch Dimension tool and the Constraints functions, the base shape and 3D model can be edited without starting over (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Before (Left) and After (Right) of Sketch Using the Sketch Dimension Tool

Once a sketch is complete, the Create and Modify tabs are also used to generate the 3D model (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Create and Modify Tabs in Model Mode

The Extrude, Sweep, and Loft tools are used to give direction and depth to the 3D model. Extrude projects the initial sketch outward to create a model. The Sweep tool creates a 3D model of a predetermined surface (profile) along a specific path. The Loft tool creates a 3D extrusion to connect two profiles of any shape (Figure 5). The Sweep and Loft tools are particularly useful for creating extrusions at an angle.

Figure 5: Examples of Extrude (Left), Sweep (Middle), and Loft (Right)

The Loft/Sweep Tutorial video demonstrates how to use these tools. Table 1 shows common Fusion 360 shortcuts.

Table 1: Common Shortcuts in Autodesk Fusion 360
Command Windows Key Combination Mac Key Combination
Pan
Hold Middle Mouse Button
Hold Middle Mouse Button
Zoom
Roll Middle Mouse Button
Roll Middle Mouse Button
Orbit
Hold Shift + Middle Mouse Button
Hold Shift + Middle Button
Undo
Ctrl + Z
Command + Z
Redo
Ctrl + Y
Command + Z + Shift
Copy
Ctrl + C
Command + C
Paste
Ctrl + V
Command + V
Cut
Ctrl + X
Command + X
Extrude
E
E
Move
M
M

The Simulation workspace can run simulations to test how a part will perform under real world conditions. A Static Stress simulation, for example, analyzes the deformation, stress, and safety factor in a model from structural loads and constraints. These assumptions are based on a linear response to stress when the load being applied is known and constant. The results determine if a design will deform excessively or fail (break) from the loads applied. To run the tests, loads and constraints are placed on the model.

Constraints consist of fixed, pinned, and frictionless support options that prevent motion in specific directions. Fixed constraints prevent all motion and displacement of a part (Figure 6). This would mimic a screw holding a part in place. A pinned support prevents movement in radial, axial, and/or tangential directions, but allows a part to rotate. Frictionless constraints prevent movement normal to the surface. This mimics a wall or floor to prevent motion perpendicular to the surface.

Figure 6: Example of Fixed Constraints

A Load is the force being applied to the model (Figure 7). The force is characterized by the direction, the point of application, and the magnitude of the force being applied.

Figure 7: Example of Loads

A Mesh is a boundary along the model made up of polygons that determine the precision of the analysis test (Figure 8). At every vertex, the analysis is run, and results are provided. The more polygons that are generated in the mesh, the more precise the results will be, but the longer it will take to run the simulation and produce the results. Always generate a new mesh when a part is altered.

Figure 8: Example of a Mesh

Safety factor is the ratio of how much stronger a material is than the expected load. It is the measure of the load a material can sustain before permanent deformation or fracture. A common, acceptable safety factor is at least 3, and any value below that is unacceptable and will likely lead to structural failure.

The physical properties of certain materials dictate how they behave under applied loads. The Young’s modulus, or modulus of elasticity, of a material is the measure of the stiffness of that material. It is described as the tendency of a material to deform axially when a force is applied in the axial direction. The yield strength of a material is the point at which the material begins to deform plastically, and the shape of the material is permanently altered. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of a material is the maximum stress that the material can withstand before structurally failing, which usually involves bending permanently or breaking (Table 2).

Table 2: Allowed Materials and their Properties
Material Aluminum Steel Copper Lead
Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) 69 200 118 14
Yield Strength (MPa) 275 207 33 9
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 310 345 210 18

Materials and Equipment

  • A lab PC
  • Fusion 360

Procedure

Part 1. Setting up the File

  1. Launch AutoDesk Fusion 360, click Create Account, and fill in the information. Important: Make sure to use an NYU email (Figure 9).
Figure 9: Fusion 360 New File Options

2. Designing the NYU Keychain

  1. Make the units of the drawing inches. They are in the Browser on the left side of the window under Document Settings.
  2. Start a 2D Sketch by clicking Create Sketch (Figure 10).
    Figure 10: Sketch Mode
  3. Select the XZ plane (Figure 11).
    Figure 11: XZ Plane
  4. Select the 2-Point Rectangle from the Sketch section of the toolbar (Figure 12).
    Figure 12: 2-Point Rectangle
  5. Draw a 2.6 in × 0.7 in rectangle starting at the origin. Click once at the origin to place one point of the rectangle and click one more time to place the second point of the rectangle. The length values can be typed in before placing the second point of the rectangle (switching which value is changed is done using the Tab key).
  6. Select the Center Diameter Circle from the Sketch section of the toolbar.
  7. Draw a 0.7 in diameter circle centered in the middle of one of the 0.7 in sides of the rectangle (the cursor should become a blue X with a triangle and snap to the midpoint of the line) (Figure 13). Like the 2-Point Rectangle, the diameter of the circle can be user-defined.
    Figure 13: Center Diameter Circle
  8. Draw another circle 0.45 in diameter in the same position. The sketch should look like Figure 14.
    Figure 14: Circles of Keychain Base
  9. Fillet (round) the corners of the base. Select the Fillet tool from the Modify section of the toolbar (Figure 15).
    Figure 15: Fillet Tool
  10. Select one of the two intersecting lines that form the right angles on the base. Set the fillet radius to 0.125 in and repeat on the other corner. The sketch should look like Figure 16.
    Figure 16: Filleted Corners
  11. Remove the extra lines using the trim tool. Select the Trim tool from the Modify section of the toolbar.
    Figure 17: Trim Tool
  12. Select all interior lines that divide the keychain to trim them. If error messages are indicated, remove the dimensions on the rest of the keychain by clicking on them and pressing the Delete key. The sketch should look like Figure 18.
    Figure 18: Keychain Base
  13. Exit the sketch using the Finish Sketch button in the top right of the window.
  14. After creating a 2D sketch, the next step is to use that sketch to create a 3D object. The Extrude tool will be used to create a 3D block. In the future, the Revolve or other tools can be used to create more advanced geometry. Select the Extrude tool from the Create section of the toolbar (Figure 19).
  15. Figure 19: Extrude Tool
  16. The Extrude information dialog will pop-up on the right side of the window. Select the profile of the object to be extruded, which is the sketch that was just created. The sketch will highlight blue if it was made correctly. Click and change the Distance to 0.15 in and press the Enter key. Click OK in the Extrude information dialog. The model will look like the one shown in Figure 20.
    Figure 20: Extruded Sketch
  17. The next step is to add the design to the keychain. A vector graphics file will be used in the DXF format provided by NYU. In the future, a logo can be designed using the Sketch tool. Download the Tandon Logo DXF File (this logo was converted from the file provided on NYU's identity page).
  18. The downloaded ZIP folder must first be extracted. Then, select Insert DXF under the Insert section of the toolbar (Figure 21).
    Figure 21: Insert DXF Tool
  19. The Insert DXF information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. For the Plane/Sketch, select the top surface of the keychain (Figure 22).
    Figure 22: Selected Top Surface
  20. Click the folder icon next to the Select DXF file to upload the Tandon Logo DXF File. The logo should appear (Figure 23).
    Figure 23: Imported DXF Logo
  21. Change the units to inches and click OK.
  22. The vertical bar and Tandon School of Engineering portions of the logo are not needed. Select the bar and text to the right by clicking and dragging (Figure 24). Delete this portion with the Delete key on the keyboard (not Backspace).
    Figure 24: Tandon to Delete
  23. The logo needs to be scaled to fit the keychain. A base point must be selected for which the sketch will be scaled to. The midpoint of the line on the right side of the box around the torch will be used as the base point, so a point must be placed there first.
  24. Before placing a point, the sketch must be in editing mode. A sketch is in editing mode when the background turns into gridlines, and Finish Sketch appears at the top right of the window. Edit the logo by selecting Browser → Sketches and double-clicking on tandon_long_white sketch (Figure 25).
    Figure 25: Sketches in Browser
  25. Select the Create → Point tool. Place a point at the midpoint of the right side of the box around the torch (Figure 26). This is the base point.
    Figure 26: Midpoint on Box
  26. Select the Modify → Sketch Scale tool. The Sketch Scale information dialog will appear on the righthand side of the window. For the Entities, circle the remaining lines of the box and torch of the logo by clicking and dragging. Do not select the base point in Step 24. If the midpoint was selected, clicking on the point again will unselect it.
  27. In the Sketch Scale window, a third option will appear as Scale Factor. Enter a scaling factor of 0.75 and click OK (Figure 27).
    Figure 27: Scaled Box
  28. The logo must now be positioned on the keychain. This will be done by drawing a line for alignment and moving the logo design to where the alignment line is located. Select the Sketch → Line tool and draw a 0.925 in horizontal line from a point close to the center of the hole in the keychain base to the right (Figure 28).
    Figure 20: Alignment Line
  29. Select the entire logo by clicking and dragging. Then select Modify → Move/Copy on the toolbar.
  30. The Move/Copy information dialog will appear on the right side of the window. The selection should already be made (the NYU logo). Select Point to Point as the Move Type. For the Origin Point, select the midpoint from the side of the box around the torch. For the Target Point, select the right end of the alignment line that was previously drawn (Figure 29). Click OK.
    Figure 29: Move/Copy Tool
  31. Delete the alignment line that was drawn in Step 27.
  32. Click Finish Sketch in the top right of the window to exit the sketch. The final sketch is shown in Figure 30.
    Figure 30: Final Sketch
  33. To finish this side of the keychain, the design must be cut into the base. To do this, the Extrude tool will be used.
  34. To cut the design, select Create → Extrude on the toolbar. The Extrude information dialog will appear on the righthand side of the window. Select the design profile to cut, which is the area around the torch and each of the letters (Figure 31).
    Figure 31: Selected Cut Profile
  35. In the Extrude window, scroll down to Operation, and select Cut. Set the Distance to -0.06 in (Figure 32). Click OK.
    Figure 32: Engrave the Tandon Logo
  36. The final model is shown in Figure 33.
    Figure 33: Final Model

Part 3. Fusion 360 Competition

Competition Rules

  • This portion of the lab is a competition to redesign a part and obtain the highest competition ratio
  • The redesigned part must have a safety factor of at least 3
  • The redesigned part must not have more than double the volume of the original part
  • The applied forces and fixed constraints cannot be altered
  • The thickness of the base and the proportions of the original part cannot be altered. *The supports can be altered if and only if they do not take away from or add to the *base of the part
  • The winning design will receive extra credit towards the lab report grade for this lab
  • Only aluminum, steel, copper, or lead may be used when modifying the part


  • Equation (1) will be used in the competition. (Please note the volume should be measured in mm3)

(1)

Design Consideration

  • Do not simply add a long or large block to the redesigned part
  • Consider bridges, cranes, and other systems that use structural support in the redesign
  • Consider which material will increase the safety factor
  • How can the part be modified to support higher loads?

Parts Selection

Click on the image of the part to download the Fusion 360 file for that part. Figures 34 through 41 show the components that cannot be modified in red. The red areas cannot be cut, made longer, or thicker. Components, such as fillets, chamfers, or other extrusions, including lofts and sweeps, can be added.

Procedure

  1. Download the part to be modified as determined by the Lab TA. Extract the ZIP folder that was downloaded to obtain the F3D file.
  2. Open Fusion 360. Go to File → Open and select the downloaded part. Select the Design workspace in the top left of the window.
    Figure 42: Workspace Options
  3. Open the Bodies in the Browser on the lefthand side of the window, right click on the body of interest, and click Properties (Figure 43).
    Figure 43: Properties of a Body
  4. From the Properties dialog, record the volume of the body in mm3.
  5. Click the workspace drop-down menu at the top left of the window and change the workspace to Simulation.
  6. Open the Static Stress study in the Browser, and open the Study Materials tab (Figure 44). Record the material being used.
    Figure 44: Study Material
  7. Determine the location the load is being applied (Figure 45). Double click the blue force arrow and record the magnitude of the force in Newtons.
    Figure 45: Applied Loads
  8. In the Browser, select Mesh → Generate Mesh (Figure 46). If the mesh is already generated and an error occurs, select OK.
    Figure 46: Generate Mesh
  9. In the Browser, right click Results and select Solve. Follow the Solve dialog until the simulation is complete. Click Close and the results should look like Figure 47.
    Figure 47: Results of the Simulation
  10. Record the safety factor for the design.
  11. Sketch a possible solution to the part that would add extra support against the force being applied, remembering what cannot be modified. Recall that the modified design must have a safety factor of at least 3. Have the sketch approved by a TA.
  12. Go back to the Design workspace in Fusion 360 and use the tools shown to add support to the original part (i.e. Extrude and Sweep).
  13. Once the part has been modified, go back to the Simulation workspace.
  14. Change the material of the part, as it can increase the safety factor by right clicking on Study Materials in the Browser tab.
    Figure 48: Study Materials
  15. Click on the Study Materials to open the drop down menu and change it to one of the four metals (Aluminum, steel, copper, lead.
    Figure 49: Changing the Study Materials
  16. Run the analysis again with the modified part by selecting Mesh → Generate Mesh in the Browser.
  17. Solve the results and observe the safety factor of the modified design. The model may become bent as the results are exaggerated in the simulation to gain a better understanding of how the part moves with an applied load.
  18. If the safety factor of the modified parts is less than 3, add additional supports and/or change the material of the part and run the simulation again.
  19. Once the required safety factor has been achieved, record the safety factor and volume of the modified part. Give the values of the safety factor and volume of the modified part to the TA to calculate the competition ranking.

Assignment

Individual Lab Report

Follow the lab report guidelines laid out in the EG1003 Writing Style Guide in the Technical Writing section of the manual. The following points should be addressed in the appropriate section of the lab report. Please only discuss the Fusion 360 competition portion in the lab report. The NYU logo keychain procedure does not need to be discussed.

  • Abstract
    • Briefly summarize the lab exercise. Include the competition results
  • Introduction
    • Discuss the uses and advantages and disadvantages of CAD software
    • Discuss Fusion 360
      • Workspaces
      • Tools and other components used in the lab exercise
    • Discuss the competition
      • Present and discuss ratio in Equation Editor
      • Discuss rules
      • Discuss available materials
      • Discuss design strategy and impact of rules, materials, and ratio on design strategy
  • Procedure
    • Materials
    • For the competition, describe what was done in sufficient detail so that another person could follow the description and replicate the results. Reference tools and workspaces used
  • Data/Observations
    • Present and discuss first Fusion 360 simulation. Include simulation and all data
    • Present and discuss all additional simulations. Include simulations and all data
    • Present and discuss the Fusion 360 design’s ratio. Include the calculation using **Equation Editor and initial and final safety factor and initial and final volume
    • Present and discuss competition results. Include all data and table
  • Conclusion
    • Analyze competition results
      • Discuss role of safety factor, volume, materials in determining competition results
    • Discuss ways to improve the design’s performance in the competition
  • Contribution statement


Team PowerPoint Presentation

Follow the presentation guidelines laid out in the EG1003 Lab Presentation Format in the Technical Presentations section of the manual. When preparing the presentation, consider the following points.

  • Why is CAD software, such as Fusion 360, AutoCAD, or SolidWorks, an important tool for engineers?
  • Include the four basic CAD drawing views (top, most detailed side, front, and isometric) of the mechanical part before and after modifications (eight drawings total)
  • How is simulation used in engineering design?
  • Explain the material selected for the redesign of the part
  • How did having a constrained volume impact the design process?
  • Define safety factor
  • How did the redesign compare with other redesigns?
  • Did the material have an impact on the safety factor, and if so, why?

Appendix: Preparing the Keychain for Print

This appendix entry is not a part of the lab, but serves as additional information to prepare the design in the 3D printing slicing software. The keychain made in the first exercise is used as a reference in this entry. Cura will be used for orienting parts on the printer build plate and selecting the color of each object. It also generates a code for the toolpath that the printer will read and follow to print the objects.

  1. Open Cura. If a menu pops up prompting for the printer, select the Ultimaker 3. If a menu does not pop up, make sure the printer currently selected is Ultimaker 3 at the top left corner.
  2. To load the two files from above, select File → Open File(s) at the top left of the window and open the STL files containing the base of the keychain and the keychain insert (Figure 50).
    Figure 50: STL Files Loaded in Cura
  3. In Cura, right click and drag to pan around, middle click and drag to move your frame of view, and scroll up and down to zoom in and out.
  4. Select the keychain base and click the Rotate tool from the toolbar on the lefthand side of the window. Use the red, blue, and green hoops to rotate the base so that the logo design is facing upward (Figure 51). Do the same for the keychain filler. Uncheck the Snap Rotation option for more precise rotation.
    Figure 51: Rotate Hoops
  5. Make sure both objects are lying flat on the build plate by using Rotate → Lay Flat. If the Lay Flat tool does not lay the object flat, go to the Move tool and type in 0 mm for the Z value (Figure 52.
    Figure 52: Move Tool
  6. Select the rectangle insert, and using the Move tool on the left, enter 0.15 mm as the Z value to raise it vertically. If the insert does not move, go to Preferences >> Configure Cura and ensure the setting "automatically drop down to the build plate" is unchecked.
  7. Select the rectangle insert, and using the Move tool on the left, enter 0.15 mm as the Z value to raise it vertically. If the insert does not move, go to Preferences → Configure Cura and ensure the setting automatically drop down to the build plate is unchecked.
  8. Select the keychain insert and set it under Extruder 2 in the toolbar on the left (Figure 53). That piece will appear as slightly darker yellow. The insert must be set under a different extruder because it will be printed in a different color than the keychain base.
    Figure 53: Changing Extruders
  9. Having the keychain insert selected, select the Move tool on the left-hand toolbar. Using the red and green arrows, drag the insert piece and align it in the keychain base (Figure 54). Make sure not to move the insert piece in the Z direction as this was previously set in Step 6.
    Figure 54: Final Cura Setup
  10. Click Slice, then click Save to File in the bottom right of the window. Save the file as a GCODE file.

References

No references being used in this lab.